Super Nintendo Entertainment System
"Super Nintendo" redirects here. For Nintendo's area in Universal Studios Japan, see Super Nintendo World.
Home video game console developed by Nintendo
‹The templateInfobox information appliance is being considered for merging.›
Top: North American (NTSC) SNES (c.)
|Also known as||SNES|
|Type||Home video game console|
|Units sold||Worldwide: million|
North America: million
|CPU||Ricoh 5A22 @ MHz|
|Online services||Satellaview (Japan only)|
XBAND (USA and Canada only)
Nintendo Power (Japan only)
|Predecessor||Nintendo Entertainment System|
The Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES),[b] commonly shortened to Super NES or Super Nintendo,[c] is a bithome video game console developed by Nintendo that was released in in Japan and South Korea, in North America, in Europe and Oceania, and in South America. In Japan, the system is called the Super Famicom (SFC).[d] In South Korea, it is known as the Super Comboy[e] and was distributed by Hyundai Electronics. The system was released in Brazil on August 30, , by Playtronic. Although each version is essentially the same, several forms of regional lockout prevent cartridges for one version from being used in other versions.
The SNES is Nintendo's second programmable home console, following the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES). The console introduced advanced graphics and sound capabilities compared with other systems at the time. The system was designed to accommodate the ongoing development of a variety of enhancement chips integrated into game cartridges to be competitive into the next generation.
The SNES received largely positive reviews and was a global success, becoming the best-selling console of the bit era after launching relatively late and facing intense competition from Sega's Genesis console in North America and Europe. Overlapping the NES's million unit sales, the SNES remained popular well into the bit era, with million units sold worldwide by the time it was discontinued in It continues to be popular among collectors and retro gamers, with new homebrew games and Nintendo's emulated rereleases, such as on the Virtual Console, the Super NES Classic Edition, and Nintendo Switch Online.
To compete with the popular Family Computer in Japan, NEC Home Electronics launched the PC Engine in , and Sega followed suit with the Mega Drive in The two platforms were later launched in North America in as the TurboGrafx and the Sega Genesis respectively. Both systems were built on bit architectures and offered improved graphics and sound over the 8-bit NES. However, it took several years for Sega's system to become successful. Nintendo executives were in no rush to design a new system, but they reconsidered when they began to see their dominance in the market slipping.
On September 9, , then-Nintendo president Hiroshi Yamauchi revealed the development of the Super Famicom in the newspaper Kyoto Shimbun. On August 30, , in an interview with TOUCH Magazine, he announced the development of Super Mario Bros. 4, Dragon Quest V, three original games, and he projected sales of 3 million units of the upcoming console. Famicom Hissyoubon magazine speculated that Nintendo's early announcement was probably made to forestall Christmas shopping for the PC Engine, and relayed Enix's clarification that it was waiting on sales figures to select either PC Engine or Super Famicom for its next Dragon Quest game. The magazine and Enix both expressed a strong interest in networking as a standard platform feature. The console was demonstrated to the Japanese press on November 21, , and again on July 28, 
The four-color Super Famicom mark (left) was used as part of the logo in the Japanese and PAL regions. The colors correspond to those of the ABXY buttons of the control pad in those regions. A different logo was used for the North American version (right), consisting of a striped background outlining four oval shapes.
Designed by Masayuki Uemura, the designer of the original Famicom, the Super Famicom was released in Japan on Wednesday, November 21, , for ¥25, (equivalent to ¥27, in ). It was an instant success; Nintendo's initial shipment of , units sold out within hours, and the resulting social disturbance led the Japanese government to ask video game manufacturers to schedule future console releases on weekends. The system's release also gained the attention of the Yakuza, leading to a decision to ship the devices at night to avoid robbery.
With the Super Famicom quickly outselling its rivals, Nintendo reasserted itself as the leader of the Japanese console market. Nintendo's success was partially due to the retention of most of its key third-party developers, including Capcom, Konami, Tecmo, Square, Koei, and Enix.
Nintendo released the Super Nintendo Entertainment System, a redesigned version of the Super Famicom, in North America for US$ (equivalent to $ in ). It began shipping in limited quantities on August 23, ,[a] with an official nationwide release date of September 9,  The SNES was released in the United Kingdom and Ireland in April for GB£ (equivalent to £ in ).
Most of the PAL region versions of the console use the Japanese Super Famicom design, except for labeling and the length of the joypad leads. The Playtronic SNES in Brazil, although PAL-M, uses the North American design. Both the NES and SNES were released in Brazil in by Playtronic, a joint venture between the toy company Estrela and consumer electronics company Gradiente.
The SNES and Super Famicom launched with few games, but these games were well received in the marketplace. In Japan, only two games were initially available: Super Mario World and F-Zero. (A third game, Bombuzal, was released during the launch week.) In North America, Super Mario World launched as a bundle with the console; other launch games include F-Zero, Pilotwings (both of which demonstrate the console's Mode 7 pseudo-3D rendering capability), SimCity, and Gradius III.
Main article: Console war §Sega versus Nintendo
The rivalry between Nintendo and Sega resulted in what has been described as one of the most notable console wars in video game history, in which Sega positioned the Genesis as the "cool" console, with games aimed at older audiences, and aggressive advertisements that occasionally attacked the competition. Nintendo, however, scored an early public-relations advantage by securing the first console conversion of Capcom's arcade hit Street Fighter II for SNES, which took more than a year to make the transition to the Genesis. Though the Genesis had a two-year lead to launch time, a much larger library of games, and a lower price point, it only represented an estimated 60% of the American bit console market in June , and neither console could maintain a definitive lead for several years. Donkey Kong Country is said to have helped establish the SNES's market prominence in the latter years of the bit generation, and for a time, maintain against the PlayStation and Saturn. According to Nintendo, the company had sold more than 20million SNES units in the U.S. According to a Wedbush Securities report based on NPD sales data, the SNES outsold the Genesis in the U.S. market by 2 million units.
Changes in policy
During the NES era, Nintendo maintained exclusive control over games released for the system – the company had to approve every game, each third-party developer could only release up to five games per year (but some third parties got around this by using different names, such as Konami's "Ultra Games" brand), those games could not be released on another console within two years, and Nintendo was the exclusive manufacturer and supplier of NES cartridges. However, competition from Sega's console brought an end to this practice; in , Acclaim Entertainment began releasing games for both platforms, with most of Nintendo's other licensees following suit over the next several years; Capcom (which licensed some games to Sega instead of producing them directly) and Square were the most notable holdouts.
Nintendo continued to carefully review submitted games, scoring them on a point scale and allocating marketing resources accordingly. Each region performed separate evaluations. Nintendo of America also maintained a policy that, among other things, limited the amount of violence in the games on its systems. The surprise arcade hit Mortal Kombat (), a gory fighting game with huge splashes of blood and graphically violent fatality moves, was heavily censored by Nintendo.[f] Because the Genesis version allowed for an uncensored version via cheat code, it outsold the censored SNES version by a ratio of nearly three to one.
U.S. Senators Herb Kohl and Joe Lieberman convened a Congressional hearing on December 9, , to investigate the marketing of violent video games to children.[g] Though Nintendo took the high ground with moderate success, the hearings led to the creation of the Interactive Digital Software Association and the Entertainment Software Rating Board and the inclusion of ratings on all video games. With these ratings in place, Nintendo decided its censorship policies were no longer needed.
bit era and beyond
While other companies were moving on to bit systems, Rare and Nintendo proved that the SNES was still a strong contender in the market. In November , Rare released Donkey Kong Country, a platform game featuring 3D models and textures pre-rendered on Silicon Graphics workstations. With its detailed graphics, fluid animation, and high-quality music, Donkey Kong Country rivals the aesthetic quality of games that were being released on newer bit CD-based consoles. In the last 45 days of , million copies were sold, making it the fastest-selling video game in history to that date. This game sent a message that early bit systems had little to offer over the SNES, and proved the market for the more advanced consoles of the near future. According to TRSTS reports, two of the top five best-selling games in the U.S. for December are SNES games.
In October , Nintendo released a redesigned model of the SNES (the SNS model referred to as "New-Style Super NES") in North America for US$99, with some units including the pack-in game Super Mario World 2: Yoshi's Island. Like the earlier redesign of the NES (model NES), the new model is slimmer and lighter than its predecessor, but it lacks S-Video and RGB output, and it is among the last major SNES-related releases in the region. A similarly redesigned Super Famicom Jr. was released in Japan at around the same time. However, the redesign did not make it to Europe.
Nintendo ceased the production of the SNES in North America in , about two years after releasing Kirby's Dream Land 3 (its final first-party game in the US) on November 27, , and a year after releasing Frogger (its final third-party game in the US). In Japan, Nintendo continued production of both the Family Computer and the Super Famicom until September 25, , and new games were produced until the year , ending with the release of Metal Slader Glory Director's Cut on November 29, 
Many popular SNES games were ported to the Game Boy Advance, which has similar video capabilities. In , Nintendo announced that SNES games would be made available for download via the Wii's Virtual Console service. On October 31, , Nintendo Co., Ltd. announced that it would no longer repair Family Computer or Super Famicom systems due to an increasing shortage of the necessary parts. On March 3, , Nintendo Co., Ltd. announced that it would bring SNES games to the New Nintendo 3DS and New Nintendo 3DS XL (and later the New Nintendo 2DS XL) via its eShop download service. At the Nintendo Direct event on September 4, , Nintendo announced that it would be bringing select SNES games to the Nintendo Switch Online platform.
The bit design of the SNES incorporates graphics and sound co-processors that perform tiling and simulated 3D effects, a palette of 32, colors, and 8-channel ADPCM audio. These base platform features, plus the ability to dramatically extend them all through substantial chip upgrades inside of each cartridge, represent a leap over the 8-bit NES generation and some significant advantages over bit competitors such as the Genesis.
CPU and RAM
|Processor||bit Custom WDC 65C core|
Bus:MHz, MHz, or MHz
Bus:MHz, MHz, or MHz
|Buses||bit and 8-bit address buses, 8-bit data bus|
The CPU is a Ricoh 5A22, which is a derivative of the bit WDC 65C microprocessor. In NTSC regions, its nominal clock speed is MHz but the CPU will slow down to either MHz or MHz when accessing some slower peripherals.
This CPU has an 8-bit data bus and two address buses. The bit "BusA" is designated for general accesses, and the 8-bit "BusB" can access support chip registers such as the video and audio co-processors.
The WDC 65C also supports an 8-channel DMA unit; an 8-bit parallel I/O port a controller port interface circuits allowing serial and parallel access to controller data; a bit multiplication and division unit; and circuitry for generating non-maskable interrupts on V-blank and IRQ interrupts on calculated screen positions.
Early revisions of the 5A22 used in SHVC boards are prone to spontaneous failure; this can produce a variety of symptoms including graphics glitches during Mode 7 operation, a black screen on power-on, or inability to read the controllers properly. The first revision 5A22 also had a fatal bug in the DMA controller that could cause games to crash when running; this was corrected in subsequent revisions.
The console contains KB of general-purpose RAM, which is separate from the 64KB VRAM dedicated to the video and audio subsystems.
|Resolutions||Progressive: × (), × (), × (), × ()|
Interlaced: × (), × ()
|Pixel depth||2, 4, 7, or 8 bpp indexed; 8 or 11 bpp direct|
|Sprites||, 32 max per line; up to 64×64 pixels|
|Backgrounds||Up to 4 planes; each up to × pixels|
The Picture Processing Unit (PPU) consists of two separate but closely tied IC packages. It contains 64KB of SRAM for storing video data, bytes of object attribute memory (OAM) for storing sprite data, and ×15 bits of color generator RAM (CGRAM) for storing palette data. This CGRAM allows the console to display up to colors, chosen from the bit RGB color space, for a total of 32, possible colors. The PPU is clocked by the same signal as the CPU and generates a pixel every two or four cycles. Eight video modes are available to the programmer:
- Mode0: 4layers, all using 4-color palettes. Each BG uses its section of the SNES palette. Up to 96 colors can be displayed on the backgrounds, 24 colors per layer.
- Mode1: 3layers, two using color palettes and one using 4-color palettes. Up to colors can be displayed by the first two layers and 24 colors by the third layer.
- Mode2: 2layers, both using color palettes. Each tile can be individually scrolled. Up to colors can be displayed on the screen.
- Mode3: 2layers, one using the full color palette and one using color palettes. The color layer can also directly specify colors from an bit (RGB) colorspace. Up to colors are displayed by the first layer and colors by the second layer.
- Mode4: 2layers, one using the full color palette and one using 4-color palettes. The color layer can directly specify colors, and each tile can be individually scrolled. Up to colors are displayed by the first layer and 24 colors by the second layer.
- Mode5: 2layers, one using color palettes and one using 4-color palettes. Tile decoding is altered to facilitate the use of the width and interlaced resolutions. Up to colors are displayed by the first layer and 24 colors by the second layer.
- Mode6: 1layer, using color palettes. Tile decoding is as in Mode5, and each tile can be individually scrolled. Up to colors can be displayed on screen.
- Mode7: 1layer of × tiles of size 8×8 from a set of , which may be interpreted as a color one-plane layer or a color two-plane layer. The layer may be rotated and scaled using matrix transformations. A programming technique called HDMA can be used to change the matrix parameters for each scanline to generate perspective effects.
|Output||8 channels, stereo|
The audio subsystem is called the S-SMP, which is a dedicated single chip consisting of an 8-bit CPU, a bit DSP, and 64KB of SRAM. It is designed and produced by Sony and is completely independent from the rest of the system. It is clocked at a nominal MHz in both NTSC and PAL systems. It is capable of producing stereo sound, composed from 8 voices generated using 8 bit audio samples and various effects such as echo.
Nintendo employed several types of regional lockout, including both physical and hardware incompatibilities.
Top: North American design
Bottom: Japanese and PAL region design.
The bottom cartridge also illustrates the optional pins used by enhancement chipssuch as the Super FX3D chip.
Physically, the cartridges are shaped differently for different regions. North American cartridges have a rectangular bottom with inset grooves matching protruding tabs in the console, and other regions' cartridges are narrower with a smooth curve on the front and no grooves. The physical incompatibility can be overcome with use of various adapters, or through modification of the console.
Internally, a regional lockout chip (CIC) within the console and in each cartridge prevents the PAL region games from being played on Japanese or North American consoles and vice versa. The Japanese and North American machines have the same region chip. This can be overcome through the use of adapters, typically by inserting the imported cartridge in one slot and a cartridge with the correct region chip in a second slot. Alternatively, disconnecting one pin of the console's lockout chip will prevent it from locking the console; hardware in later games can detect this situation, so it later became common to install a switch to reconnect the lockout chip as needed.
PAL consoles face another incompatibility when playing out-of-region cartridges: the NTSC video standard specifies video at 60Hz but PAL operates at 50Hz, resulting in an approximately % slower framerate. Additionally, PAL's higher resolution results in letterboxing of the output image. Some commercial PAL region releases exhibit this same problem and, therefore, can be played in NTSC systems without issue, but other games will face a 20% speedup if played in an NTSC console. To mostly correct this issue, a switch can be added to place the SNES PPU into a 60Hz mode supported by most newer PAL televisions. Later games will detect this setting and refuse to run, requiring the switch to be thrown only after the check completes.
Super Nintendo Entertainment System cases
Japanese SHVC model
North American SNS model
PAL-region SNSPA model
Japanese SHVC model
South Korean SNSN model
Nintendo Super System controller
All versions of the SNES are predominantly gray, of slightly different shades. The original North American version, designed by Nintendo of America industrial designer Lance Barr (who previously redesigned the Famicom to become the NES), has a boxy design with purple sliding switches and a dark gray eject lever. The loading bay surface is curved, both to invite interaction and to prevent food or drinks from being placed on the console and spilling as had happened with the flat-surfaced NES. The Japanese and European versions are more rounded, with darker gray accents and buttons. The North American New-Style Super NES (model SNS) and the Japanese Super Famicom Jr. (model SHVC), all designed by Barr, are both smaller with a rounded contour; however, the SNS buttons are purple where the Super Famicom Jr. buttons are gray. The European and American versions of the SNES controllers have much longer cables compared to the Japanese Super Famicom controllers.
All versions incorporate a top-loading slot for game cartridges, although the shape of the slot differs between regions to match the different shapes of the cartridges. The MULTI OUT connector (later used on the Nintendo 64 and GameCube) can output composite video, S-Video and RGB signals, as well as RF with an external RF modulator. Original versions additionally include a pin expansion port under a small cover on the bottom of the unit and a standard RF output with channel selection switch on the back; the redesigned models output composite video only, requiring an external modulator for RF.
The ABS plastic used in the casing of some older SNES and Super Famicom consoles is particularly susceptible to oxidization with exposure to air, likely due to an incorrect mixture of the stabilizing or flame retarding additives. This, along with the particularly light color of the original plastic, causes affected consoles to quickly become yellow; if the sections of the casing came from different batches of plastic, a "two-tone" effect results. This issue may be reversed with a method called Retrobrighting, where a mixture of chemicals is applied to the case and exposed to UV light.
The Nintendo Super System is an arcade system for retail preview of 11 particular SNES games in the United States, similar to the PlayChoice for NES games. It consists of slightly modified SNES hardware with a menu interface and inch monitor, that allows gameplay for a certain amount of time depending on game credits. Manufacturing of this model was discontinued in 
Main article: Super Nintendo Entertainment System Game Pak
SNES games are distributed on ROM cartridges, officially referred to as Game Pak in most Western regions, and as Cassette (カセット, Kasetto) in Japan and parts of Latin America. Though the SNES can address Mbit,[h] only Mbit are actually available for cartridge use. A fairly normal mapping could easily address up to 95Mbit of ROM data (48Mbit at FastROM speed) with 8Mbit of battery-backed RAM. However, most available memory access controllers only support mappings of up to 32Mbit. The largest games released (Tales of Phantasia and Star Ocean) contain 48Mbit of ROM data, and the smallest games contain only 2Mbit.
Cartridges may also contain battery-backed SRAM to save the game state, extra working RAM, custom coprocessors, or any other hardware that will not exceed the maximum current rating of the console.
Main article: List of Super Nintendo Entertainment System games
See also: List of best-selling Super Nintendo Entertainment System video games and List of cancelled SNES and Super Famicom games
games were officially released for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System; in North America (plus 4 championship cartridges), in Europe, 1, in Japan, on Satellaview, and 13 on Sufami Turbo. Many SNES games such as Super Mario World (), The Legend of Zelda: A Link to the Past (), Donkey Kong Country (), EarthBound (), Super Metroid (), Yoshi's Island (), and others, are often cited to be some of the greatest video games of all time; numerous SNES games have been rereleased several times, including on the Virtual Console, Super NES Classic Edition, and the classic games service on Nintendo Switch Online. It is possible to play all original Game Boy games on the SNES with the Super Game Boy add-on. In the intervening years many emulatorsfor SNES software have been produced. Some SNES games support Mode 7, a graphics mode that transforms the background layer into a two-dimensional horizontal texture-mapped plane that trades height for depth.
Main article: List of Super Nintendo Entertainment System accessories
The standard SNES controller adds X and Y face buttons to the design of the NES iteration, arranging the four in a diamond shape, and adds two shoulder buttons. It features an ergonomic design by Lance Barr, later used in for the NES "dogbone" controllers, also designed by Barr. The Japanese and PAL region versions incorporate the colors of the four action buttons into the system's logo. The North American version's buttons are colored to match the redesigned console; the X and Y buttons are lavender with concave faces, and the A and B buttons are purple with convex faces. Several later consoles derive elements of their controller design from the SNES, including the PlayStation, Dreamcast, Xbox, and Wii Classic Controller. This same face button layout, including its exact letter designations, would also be used in future Nintendo systems, starting with the Nintendo DS.
Throughout the course of its life, a number of peripherals were released which added to the functionality of the SNES. Many of these devices were modeled after earlier add-ons for the NES: the Super Scope is a light gun functionally similar to the NES Zapper (though the Super Scope features wireless capabilities) and the Super Advantage is an arcade-style joystick with adjustable turbo settings akin to the NES Advantage. Nintendo also released the SNES Mouse in conjunction with Mario Paint. Hudson Soft, under license from Nintendo, released the Super Multitap, a multiplayer adapter for use with its popular series of Bomberman games. Some of the more unusual controllers include the BatterUP baseball bat, the Life Fitness Entertainment System (an exercise bike controller with built-in monitoring software), and the TeeV Golf golf club.
Though Nintendo never released an adapter for playing NES games on the SNES, the Super Game Boy adapter cartridge allows games designed for Nintendo's portable Game Boy system to be played on the SNES. The Super Game Boy touts several feature enhancements over the Game Boy, including palette substitution, custom screen borders, and access to the SNES console's features by specially enhanced Game Boy games. Japan also saw the release of the Super Game Boy 2, which adds a communication port to enable a second Game Boy to connect for multiplayer games.
Like the NES before it, the SNES has unlicensed third-party peripherals, including a new version of the Game Geniecheat cartridge designed for use with SNES games.
Soon after the release of the SNES, companies began marketing backup devices such as the Super Wildcard, Super Pro Fighter Q, and Game Doctor. These devices create a backup of a cartridge. They can also be used to play illicit ROM images or to create copies of rented video games, violating copyright laws in many jurisdictions.
Japan saw the release of the Satellaview, a modem which attaches to the Super Famicom's expansion port and connected to the St.GIGAsatellite radio station from April 23, , to June 30, Satellaview users could download gaming news and specially designed games, which were frequently either remakes of or sequels to older Famicom games, and released in installments. In the United States, the relatively short-lived XBAND allowed users to connect to a network via a dial-up modem to compete against other players around the country.
During the SNES's life, Nintendo contracted with two different companies to develop a CD-ROM-based peripheral for the console to compete with Sega's CD-ROM based add-on, Sega CD. Although a SNES-CD prototype console was produced by Sony, Nintendo's deals with both Sony and Philips were canceled, with Philips gaining the right to release a series of games based on Nintendo franchises for its CD-imultimedia console and Sony going on to develop its own PlayStation console based on its initial dealings with Nintendo.
Main article: List of Super NES enhancement chips
As part of the overall plan for the SNES, rather than include an expensive CPU that would still become obsolete in a few years, the hardware designers made it easy to interface special coprocessor chips to the console, just like the MMC chips used for most NES games. This is most often characterized by 16 additional pins on the cartridge card edge.
The Super FX is a RISC CPU designed to perform functions that the main CPU can not feasibly do. The chip is primarily used to create 3D game worlds made with polygons, texture mapping and light source shading. The chip can also be used to enhance 2D games.
The Nintendo fixed-point digital signal processor (DSP) chip allowed for fast vector-based calculations, bitmap conversions, both 2D and 3D coordinate transformations, and other functions. Four revisions of the chip exist, each physically identical but with different microcode. The DSP-1 version, including the later 1A and 1B bug fix revisions, is used most often; the DSP-2, DSP-3, and DSP-4 are used in only one game each.
Similar to the 5A22 CPU in the console, the SA-1 chip contains a 65c processor core clocked at 10MHz, a memory mapper, DMA, decompression and bitplane conversion circuitry, several programmable timers, and CIC region lockout functionality.
In Japan, games could be downloaded cheaper than standard cartridges, from Nintendo Power kiosks onto special cartridges containing flash memory and a MegaChips MXTFC chip. The chip manages communication with the kiosks to download ROM images and has an initial menu to select a game. Some were published both in cartridge and download form, and others were download only. The service closed on February 8, 
Many cartridges contain other enhancement chips, most of which were created for use by a single company in a few games; the only limitations are the speed of the SNES itself to transfer data from the chip and the current limit of the console.
Reception and legacy
Approximately million SNES consoles were sold worldwide, with million of those units sold in the Americas and million in Japan. Although it could not quite repeat the success of the NES, which sold million units worldwide, the SNES was the best-selling console of its era.
In a year-end review, a team of five Electronic Gaming Monthly editors gave the Super Nintendo Entertainment System scores of , , , , and Though they criticized how few new games were coming out for the system and how dated its graphics were compared to current generation consoles, they regarded its selection of must-have games to be still unsurpassed. Additionally noting that used SNES games were readily available in bargain bins, most of them still recommended buying a SNES. In , GameTrailers named the SNES as the second-best console of all time in their list of top ten consoles that "left their mark on the history of gaming", citing its graphics, sound, and library of top-quality games. In , they also named it the best Nintendo console of all time, saying, "The list of games we love from this console completely annihilates any other roster from the Big N." Technology columnist Don Reisinger proclaimed "The SNES is the greatest console of all time" in January , citing the quality of the games and the console's dramatic improvement over its predecessor; fellow technology columnist Will Greenwald replied with a more nuanced view, giving the SNES top marks with his heart, the NES with his head, and the PlayStation (for its controller) with his hands. GamingExcellence also gave the SNES first place in , declaring it "simply the most timeless system ever created" with many games that stand the test of time and citing its innovation in controller design, graphics capabilities, and game storytelling. At the same time, GameDaily rated it fifth of the ten greatest consoles for its graphics, audio, controllers, and games. In , IGN named the Super Nintendo Entertainment System the fourth-best video game console, complimenting its audio and number of AAA games.
See also: List of SNES emulators
Like the NES before it, the SNES has retained a long-lived fan base. It has continued to thrive on the second-hand market, emulators, and remakes. The SNES has taken the same revival path as the NES.
Emulation projects began with the initial release of VSMC in , and Super Pasofami became the first working SNES emulator in  During that time, two competing emulation projects—Snes96 and Snes97—merged to form Snes9x. In , SNES enthusiasts began programming an emulator named ZSNES. In , higan began development as bsnes, in an effort to emulate the system as closely as possible.
Nintendo of America took the same stance against the distribution of SNES ROM image files and the use of emulators as it did with the NES, insisting that they represented flagrant software piracy. Proponents of SNES emulation cite discontinued production of the SNES constituting abandonware status, the right of the owner of the respective game to make a personal backup via devices such as the Retrode, space shifting for private use, the desire to develop homebrew games for the system, the frailty of SNES ROM cartridges and consoles, and the lack of certain foreign imports. Nintendo designed a hobbyist development system for the SNES, but never released it.
Emulation of the SNES is also available on platforms such as Android, and iOS, the Nintendo DS line, the Gizmondo, the Dingoo and the GP2X by GamePark Holdings, as well as PDAs. Individual games have been included with emulators on some GameCube discs, and Nintendo's Virtual Console service for the Wii marks the introduction of officially sanctioned general SNES emulation.
A dedicated mini-console, the Super NES Classic Edition, was released in September after the NES Classic Edition. The emulation-based system, which is physically modeled after the North American and European versions of the SNES in their respective regions, is bundled with two SNES-style controllers and comes preloaded with 21 games, including the previously unreleased Star Fox 2.
- ^ abAccording to Stephen Kent's The Ultimate History of Video Games, the official launch date was September 9. Newspaper and magazine articles from late report that the first shipments were in stores in some regions on August 23, and it arrived in other regions at a later date. August 23 is also the release date officially recognized by Nintendo of America.
- ^The name "SNES" can be pronounced by English speakers as an acronym (one word, like "NATO") with various pronunciations, an initialism (a string of letters, like "IBM"), or as a hybrid (compare "JPEG"). In written English, the choice of indefinite article ("a" or "an") is therefore problematic.
- ^Though the use of "Super Nintendo" is common in colloquial speech and Nintendo of Europe uses it for their website, Nintendo of America's official guidelines discourage it, preferring instead the shorthand "Super NES", as seen written on many of their products (e.g. Super NES Control Deck, Super NES Controller, Super NES Mouse, Super NES Multi-Player Adapter).
- ^Super Famicom (Japanese: スーパーファミコン, Hepburn: Sūpā Famikon, officially adopting the abbreviated name of its predecessor, the Famicom)
- ^슈퍼 컴보이 Syupeo Keomboi
- ^In both The Ultimate History of Video Games and Purple Reign: 15 Years of the SNES, the disparity in sales is directly attributed to the SNES version lacking the excessive blood which was recolored grey and described as "sweat", and lacking some of the more gruesome finishing moves. See the Talk page for details.
- ^Some contend that Nintendo orchestrated the Congressional hearings of , but Senator Lieberman and NOA's Senior Vice President (later Chairman) Howard Lincoln both refute these allegations.
- ^Unless otherwise specified, kilobyte (kB), megabyte (MB), and megabit (Mbit) are used in the binary sense in this article, referring to quantities of or 1,,
- ^ abcd"Consolidated Sales Transition by Region"(PDF). Nintendo Co., Ltd. Archived(PDF) from the original on June 13, Retrieved October 25,
- ^ abDon Reisinger (January 21, ). "Does the Xbox 's 'Lack of Longevity' Matter?". CNET. Archived from the original on December 8, Retrieved October 23,
- ^ abNiizumi, Hirohiko (May 30, ). "Nintendo to end Famicom and Super Famicom production". GameSpot. Archived from the original on January 22, Retrieved July 15,
- ^Wolf, Mark J. P. (November 21, ). The Routledge Companion to Media Technology and Obsolescence. Routledge. ISBN. Archived from the original on August 1, Retrieved August 16,
- ^"Retro Diary: 08 November – 05 December". Retro Gamer. No. Imagine Publishing. December 13, p.
- ^ abc"Super Nintendo Entertainment System (Platform)". Giant Bomb. Archived from the original on March 30, Retrieved August 16,
- ^"History Corporate". Nintendo. Archived from the original on September 4, Retrieved February 24,
- ^"Nintendo chega hoje ao mercado". O Estado de S. Paulo. August 30, Archived from the original on February 20, Retrieved May 6,
- ^Cite error: The named reference was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
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Nintendo Switch Online
The Nintendo Switch Online app enhances your online gameplay experience on your Nintendo Switch™ system. You can use voice chat while playing compatible games—and check game-specific services even when you're not playing with your Nintendo Switch.
◆ Use voice chat during online play
A number of games support voice chat!
You can enjoy voice chat in different ways depending on the type of game you're playing. Chat with everyone in your room, or split voice chat into teams and have it out head-to-head!
Note: To use these services, you will need Nintendo Switch software that is compatible with this app. You can check the current list of software that's compatible with voice chat from within the app.
◆ Access game-specific services
You can use these services to view helpful information related to the supported software! You will also have access to a variety of features that will help take your online gameplay experience to the next level.
・ Software with game-specific services:
・ Animal Crossing™: New Horizons
・ Send custom designs made in Animal Crossing
titles for the Nintendo 3DS™ family of systems to
Animal Crossing: New Horizons.
・ Use your smartphone to input chat messages
for in-game communication.
・ Check whether your Best Friends are online.
・ Super Smash Bros.™ Ultimate
・ View posted videos and images
・ Queue up user-created stages for download to your game
・ View notifications about upcoming events
・ Splatoon™ 2
・ Check rankings and stage schedules
・ View detailed results from battles or Salmon Run
● Nintendo Account age 13+ required to access some online features, including voice chat.
● Nintendo Switch Online membership (sold separately) required to use certain features.
● Nintendo Switch system and compatible Nintendo Switch software required to use voice chat and other features.
● Compatible smartphone required.
● Persistent Internet connection required.
● Data charges may apply.
● May include advertising.
Nintendo Switch Online is not available in all countries. Terms apply. Visit www.nintendo.com/switch-online for more information.
Welcome to Nintendo NY!
Explore everything Nintendo!
Captain Falcon's Helmet
Race on over and check out this display featuring Captain Falcon's Helmet from Super Smash Bros. Ultimate as seen at E3 !
Shop our Selection of Exclusive Merchandise
Looking for the perfect gift for that special Nintendo Fan in your life? We have a wide selection of exciting and exclusive and must-have merchandise featuring your favorite characters and Nintendo franchises.
A New Way to Play!
Our foot video wall is the ultimate gaming experience! Play your favorite Nintendo Switch title on this larger than life screen.
Feeling nostalgic? Step into our showcase area where we feature all of your favorite Nintendo consoles through the years.
Nintendo NY will be accepting general entry and will remain at limited capacity on a first come-first-serve basis. During your visit, we kindly ask that you limit your shopping to 20 minutes and practice the following safety measures:
A face covering must be worn at all times
Sanitize your hands
Maintain a safe distance of at least 6 ft.
- Postpone your visit if you have been exposed to or experience symptoms of COVID
- Credit/Debit or contactless payment preferred
In order to keep our customers and employees safe, all events at Nintendo NYC have been postponed until further notice. We appreciate your patience.
We thank you and look forward to seeing you again!
Where everyone comes
Located in Manhattan's historic Rockefeller Center, Nintendo NY is your very own Warp Pipe into the Mushroom Kingdom and beyond! With 10, square feet of dedicated gaming goodness spread over 2 floors, you can check out new and exciting titles headed to Nintendo Switch, while also scratching that itch to pick up exclusive memorabilia featuring your favorite selection of gaming superstars! Looking for the perfect Super Mario souvenir? Don't worry Mario, because your Princess is in THIS castle. So do a barrel roll and stop by Nintendo NY today! Whether you're a long-time fan or you're just getting started, Nintendo NY has something for you!
Come visit us
10 Rockefeller Plaza, New York, NY
(On 48th Street between 5th and 6th Avenues)
Via Subway B, D, F, M to Sts
11am-8pm Monday - Friday
Entry will remain at limited capacity and are on a first come, first served basis.
Say hi to our team member
Oh, hey there! I’m Mitch, one of the Ambassadors at Nintendo NY. My love of Nintendo started at a young age, from trading Pokémon cards on the school bus to having my mother beat a particularly difficult level in Donkey Kong You could easily say I was raised on Nintendo consoles. One of my favorite memories of my gaming youth had to be sneaking my Nintendo DS to school so I could collect flags from my friend’s secret bases in Pokémon Diamond. Nostalgia aside, I’m currently playing and refining my team in Pokémon Shield. I’ve recently been battling online with a particularly devastating Trick Room team. When you stop by Nintendo NY, be sure to have your Pokémon ready for battle, because mine sure will be!
Favorite character: Luigi
Say hi to our team member
Hi everyone! I'm Isaiah, and I'm one of the newer Ambassadors at Nintendo NY. Receiving the combination of my first Game Boy Color and a copy of Pokemon Silver was the catalyst of my love for Nintendo. Ever since then, Nintendo has been a constant presence in my life! Aside from Pokémon, I'm a fan of other series such as Fire Emblem and Metroid. Whenever I'm not playing games, I love to read! If you're ever in the area, stop by and say, "What's up?" I'd love to have a chat!
Favorite character: Daisy
Say hi to our team member
Hey guys! My name's Michael, and I'm one of the newest Ambassadors here at Nintendo New York. Ever since I was a kid, video games have held a very special place in my heart. The very first gaming system my parents ever bought me was a Teal Game Boy Color system, alongside my very own copy of Pokémon Red Version. I've been playing many different Pokémon titles ever since, and the love I have for Pokémon solidified when I obtained my very own copy of Pokémon Crystal Version and battled Pokémon Trainer Red on Mt. Silver (because let's be real - that moment is truly epic). When I'm not playing video games in my free time, you can usually find me playing piano, reading comic books, and voice acting! Feel free to stop by and say "hi" if you ever find yourself at Nintendo NY - I'm always down for a chat!
Favorite character: Toad
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