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Flight movie wikipedia DEFAULT

Airplane!

"Flying High!" redirects here. For other uses, see Airplane (disambiguation) and Flying High (disambiguation).

1980 American satirical comedy film

Airplane! (alternatively titled Flying High!)[5] is a 1980 American parody film written and directed by David and Jerry Zucker and Jim Abrahams in their directorial debuts,[6] and produced by Jon Davison. It stars Robert Hays and Julie Hagerty and features Leslie Nielsen, Robert Stack, Lloyd Bridges, Peter Graves, Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, and Lorna Patterson.[6] The film is a parody of the disaster film genre—particularly the 1957 Paramount film Zero Hour!, from which it borrows the plot and central characters—as well as many elements from Airport 1975 and other films in the Airport series. Airplane! is known for its use of surreal humor and fast-paced slapstick comedy, including visual and verbal puns, gags, running jokes, and obscure humor.

Released by Paramount Pictures, Airplane! was a critical and commercial success, grossing $171 million worldwide against a budget of $3.5 million.[8] Its creators received the Writers Guild of America Award for Best Adapted Comedy, and nominations for the Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy and for the BAFTA Award for Best Screenplay.

In the years since its release, the film's reputation has grown substantially. Airplane! was ranked 6th on Bravo's '100 Funniest Movies'.[9] In a 2007 survey by Channel 4 in the United Kingdom, it was judged the second-greatest comedy of all time, behind Monty Python's Life of Brian.[10] In 2008, it was selected by Empire magazine as one of 'The 500 Greatest Movies of All Time' and in 2012 was voted #1 on 'The 50 Funniest Comedies Ever' poll.[11] In 2010, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".[12][13][14]

Plot[edit]

Ex-fighter pilot Ted Striker is a traumatized war veteran turned taxi driver. Because of his pathological fear of flying and subsequent "drinking problem"—he splashes beverages anywhere but into his mouth—Striker has been unable to hold a responsible job. His wartime girlfriend, Elaine Dickinson, now a flight attendant, leaves him before boarding her assigned run from Los Angeles to Chicago. Striker abandons his taxi and buys a ticket on the same flight to try to win her back. Once onboard, however, Dickinson continues to reject him.

After the in-flight meal is served, the entire flight crew and several passengers fall ill. Passenger Dr. Rumack discovers that the fish served during meal service has caused food poisoning. With the flight crew incapacitated, Dickinson contacts the Chicago control tower for help and is instructed by tower supervisor Steve McCroskey to activate the plane's autopilot, a large inflatable dummy pilot dubbed "Otto", which will get them to Chicago but won't be able to land the plane. Dickinson and Rumack convince Striker to take the controls. When McCroskey learns Striker is piloting, he contacts Striker's former commanding officer, Rex Kramer—now serving as a commercial pilot—to help talk Striker through the landing procedure. Striker becomes uneasy when Kramer starts giving orders and he briefly breaks down amid more wartime flashbacks. Dickinson and Rumack both bolster Striker's confidence and he manages to once again take the controls.

As the plane nears Chicago, the weather worsens, complicating the landing. With Dickinson's help as co-pilot and Kramer's guidance from the tower, Striker is able to land the plane safely, despite the landing gear shearing off, and the passengers suffer only minor injuries. Rescue vehicles arrive to help unload the plane. Impressed by Striker's display of courage, Dickinson embraces and kisses him, rekindling their relationship. The two watch as "Otto" takes control of the plane, inflates a female companion, and takes off.

Cast[edit]

From left: the inflatable autopilot "Otto" with Julie Hagerty and Leslie Nielsen in the cockpit

Production[edit]

Jerry Zucker, Jim Abrahams, and David Zucker (collectively known as Zucker, Abrahams and Zucker, or ZAZ) wrote Airplane! while they were performing with the Kentucky Fried Theatre, a theatre group they founded in 1971. To obtain material for comedy routines, they routinely recorded late night television and reviewed the tapes later primarily to pull the commercials, a process Abrahams compared to "seining for fish".[15] During one such taping process, they unintentionally recorded the 1957 film Zero Hour!, and while scanning the commercials, found it to be a "perfectly classically structured film" according to Jerry Zucker.[15] Abrahams later described Zero Hour! as "the serious version of Airplane!". It was the first film script they wrote, completed around 1975,[15] and was originally called The Late Show. The script originally stayed close to the dialog and plot of Zero Hour!, as ZAZ thought they did not have a sufficient understanding of film at the time to structure a proper script.[15] ZAZ's script borrowed so much from Zero Hour! that they believed they needed to negotiate the rights to create the remake of the film and ensure they remain within the allowance for parody within copyright law. They were able to obtain the rights from Warner Bros. and Paramount for about $2,500 at the time.[15] The original script contained spoofs of television commercials but people who proofread it advised them to shorten the commercials, and they eventually removed them. When their script was finished, they were unable to sell it.[16]

While failing to sell their script, the trio met director John Landis, who encouraged them to write a film based on their theatre sketches. They managed to put The Kentucky Fried Movie into production in the late 1970s, their first experience being on movie set. David Zucker said "it was the first time we had ever been on a movie set. We learned a lot. We learned that if you really wanted a movie to come out the way you wanted it to, you had to direct. So on the next movie, Airplane!, we insisted on directing".[16]

Eventually the Airplane! script found its way to Paramount through Michael Eisner. Eisner learned of the script via Susan Baerwald, another scriptwriter with United Artists, and had Jeffrey Katzenberg track down and meet with ZAZ to discuss details.[15]Avco Embassy Pictures also expressed interest in producing the film, but ZAZ decided to go with Paramount.[15]

Paramount insisted the film be shot in color rather than black-and-white as ZAZ wanted, and to be set aboard a jet airliner rather than propeller plane to better identify with modern filmgoers. In exchange, Paramount acquiesced to ZAZ's desire to cast serious actors for the film rather than comedy performers.[17] Principal photography began on June 20, 1979, and wrapped on August 31, with the bulk of filming having been done in August. Jerry Zucker stood beside the camera during shooting, while David Zucker and Jim Abrahams watched the video feed to see how the film would look; they conferred after each take.[18]

Casting[edit]

David Zucker explained that "the trick was to cast actors like Robert Stack, Leslie Nielsen, Peter Graves, and Lloyd Bridges. These were people who, up to that time, had never done comedy. We thought they were much funnier than the comedians of that time were".[16]

David Zucker felt Stack was the most important actor to be cast, since he was the "linchpin" of the film's plot.[16][15] Stack initially played his role in a way that was different from what the directors had in mind. They showed him a tape of impressionist John Byner impersonating Robert Stack. According to the producers, Stack was "doing an impression of John Byner doing an impression of Stack". Stack was not initially interested in the part, but ZAZ persuaded him. Bridges' children advised him to take the part.[16] Graves rejected the script at first, considering it tasteless. During filming, ZAZ had explained to Graves that his lines spoken to a young boy, like "Have you ever seen a grown man naked?", would "be explained later in a part that you aren't in".[17] On the DVD commentary, Abrahams said: "I don't understand. What did he think was tasteless about pedophilia?"[19]

For the role of Dr. Rumack, ZAZ initially suggested Dom DeLuise, Christopher Lee, and Jack Webb, all of whom turned it down, before they considered Nielsen,[17] who was "just a fish in water" in his role, according to Jerry Zucker.[15] Nielsen's career to this point had consisted mostly of serious leading roles but he wanted to work in comedy and was looking for a film to help in the transition. He was considered a "closet comedian" on set, pranking his fellow actors between shots, but immediately adopted his somber, serious persona when performing as Rumack.[17] During filming, Nielsen used a whoopee cushion to keep the cast off-balance. Hays said that Nielsen "played that thing like a maestro".[19] Christopher Lee would later acknowledge that turning down the role (to star in the film 1941) was a huge mistake.[20]

The role of Ted Striker was written for David Letterman, who had auditioned for a news anchorman role in Kentucky Fried Movie. Letterman screen tested in 1979, but ultimately was not selected.[21]Bill Murray and Fred Willard were also considered for the role.[22][23]Caitlyn Jenner[a] also read for the part. Instead, ZAZ opted for Robert Hays, co-star of ABCsituation comedyAngie.[17] Elaine's part was auditioned for by Sigourney Weaver and Shelley Long but eventually went to Julie Hagerty.[17] The directors advised the pair to play their roles straight.[18] Hays and Hagerty developed an on-screen chemistry that worked in the film's favor; they spent time to perfect the bar dance routine set to "Stayin' Alive", among other scenes.[15][17]

For the "red zone/white zone" send-up of curbside terminal announcements in which public address announcers "Betty" and "Vernon" argue over the red and white zones, ZAZ went through the usual process of auditioning professional voice actors but failed to find ones who could provide the desired verisimilitude. Instead, the filmmakers ultimately sought out and hired the real-life married couple who had recorded the announcement tapes which were then being used at Los Angeles International Airport.[24] ZAZ lifted some of their dialog directly from the 1968 novel Airport, written by Arthur Hailey who had also written Zero Hour!'s script. The lifted lines included ones about an unwanted pregnancy; David Zucker said the couple "got a kick out of it".[17]

Music[edit]

The film's score was composed by Elmer Bernstein, who had previously provided soundtracks for classic films like The Ten Commandments, The Magnificent Seven, To Kill a Mockingbird, and The Great Escape. ZAZ told Bernstein they did not want an epic score like his past works but "a B-Movie level score, overdone and corny".[17] According to ZAZ, Bernstein completely understood what they were trying to do, had laughed throughout a previous cut of the film, and wrote a "fantastic score".[15]

In 1980, an LP soundtrack for the film was released by Regency Records which included dialog and songs from the film. Narrated by Shadoe Stevens, it only featured one score track, the "Love Theme from Airplane!" composed by Bernstein. The soundtrack was altered for the European 'Flying High' release, with several featured tracks swapped for pieces original to the LP.

In April 2009, La-La Land Records announced it would release the first official soundtrack album for Airplane!, containing Bernstein's complete score.[25] The soundtrack was released digitally on February 19, 2013, by Paramount Music.[26]

Release[edit]

Prior to the film's release, the directors were apprehensive following a mediocre audience response at a pre-screening, but the film earned its entire budget of about $3.5 million in its first five days of wide release.

Airplane! opened on June 27, 1980 in seven theatres in Toronto, grossing $83,058 in its opening weekend.[1][27] It also opened in two theaters in Buffalo, grossing $14,000 in its first week.[28] The film then expanded on Wednesday, July 2 to 705 theaters in the United States and Canada, grossing $6,052,514 in its first five days of wide release, finishing second for the weekend with a gross of $4,540,000.[29] Overall, it grossed $83 million at the US and Canadian box office and returned $40 million in rentals,[8] making it the fourth-highest-grossing film of 1980.[30] Worldwide, the film earned $171 million.[4]

Reception[edit]

"Airplane! emerged in 1980 as a sharply perceptive parody of the big-budget disaster films that dominated Hollywood during the 1970s [and] introduced a much-needed deflating assessment of the tendency of theatrical film producers to push successful formulaic movie conventions beyond the point of logic".

Library of Congress

Airplane! received universal acclaim from critics and is widely regarded as one of the best films of 1980.[31][32][33][34]Rotten Tomatoes gives the film an approval rating of 97% based on 69 reviews, compiled retrospectively, with an average rating of 8.45/10. The site's critical consensus reads: "Though unabashedly juvenile and silly, Airplane! is nevertheless an uproarious spoof comedy full of quotable lines and slapstick gags that endure to this day".[35] On Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 78 out of 100 based on 18 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews".[36]

Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times wrote "Airplane! is sophomoric, obvious, predictable, corny, and quite often very funny. And the reason it's funny is frequently because it's sophomoric, predictable, corny, etc."[37]Janet Maslin of The New York Times wrote "Airplane! is more than a pleasant surprise... As a remedy for the bloated self-importance of too many other current efforts, it's just what the doctor ordered".[38]

In 2008, Airplane! was selected by Empire magazine as one of 'The 500 Greatest Movies of All Time'.[39] It was also placed on a similar list—'The Best 1000 Movies Ever Made'—by The New York Times.[40] In November 2015, the film was ranked fourth in the Writers Guild of America's list of '101 Funniest Screenplays'.[41]

MaximOnline.com named the airplane crash in Airplane! as number four on its list of "Most Horrific Movie Plane Crashes". Leslie Nielsen's response to Hays' "Surely you can't be serious" line—"I am serious. And don't call me Shirley"—was 79th on AFI's list of the best 100 movie quotes. In 2000, the American Film Institute listed Airplane! as number ten on its list of the 100 funniest American films. In the same year, Total Film readers voted it the second-greatest comedy film of all time. It was also second in the British 50 Greatest Comedy Films poll on Channel 4, beaten by Monty Python's Life of Brian. Entertainment Weekly voted the film the "funniest movie on video" in their list of the 100 funniest movies on video.[42]

A number of actors were cast to spoof their established images: prior to their roles in Airplane!, Nielsen, Stack, and Bridges were known for portraying adventurous, no-nonsense tough-guy characters. Stack's role as the captain who loses his nerve in one of the earliest airline "disaster" films, The High and the Mighty (1954), is spoofed in Airplane!, as is Lloyd Bridges' 1970–1971 television role as airport manager Jim Conrad in San Francisco International Airport. Peter Graves was in the made-for-television film SST: Death Flight, in which an SST was unable to land owing to an emergency.[43]

Nielsen enjoyed a major career boost subsequent to Airplane!'s release. The film marked a significant change in his film persona towards deadpan comedy, notably in the three Naked Gun films: The Naked Gun: From the Files of Police Squad! (1988); The Naked Gun 2½: The Smell of Fear (1991); and Naked Gun 33⅓: The Final Insult (1994). The films were based on the six-episode television series Police Squad! which starred Nielsen and was created and produced by Zucker–Abrahams–Zucker. This also led to his casting, many years later, in Mel Brooks' Dracula: Dead and Loving It. Brooks had wanted to make the film for a long time, but put it off because, as he said: "I just could not find the right Dracula". According to Brooks, he didn't see Airplane! until years after its release. When he did, he knew Nielsen would be right for the part. When it was suggested that his role in Airplane! was against type, Nielsen protested that he had "always been cast against type before", and that comedy was what he always really wanted to do.[44]

The film is recognized by American Film Institute in these lists:

Dr. Rumack: "I am serious. And don't call me Shirley". – No. 79[46]

Influence[edit]

Peter Farrelly said of the film: "I was in Rhode Island the first time I saw Airplane! Seeing it for the first time was like going to a great rock concert, like seeing Led Zeppelin or the Talking Heads. We didn't realize until later that what we'd seen was a very specific kind of comedy that we now call the Zucker-Abrahams-Zucker school".[19] Farrelly, along with his writing partner Bennett Yellin, sent a comedy script to David Zucker, who in return gave them their first Hollywood writing job. Farrelly said: "I'll tell you right now, if the Zuckers didn't exist, there would be no Farrelly brothers".[19]

Thirty years later, the documentary Jews and Baseball: An American Love Story opened with a scene from the film.[47][48]

The MythBusters TV show episode "Airplane Hour" reenacted the climax of the film to see if an inexperienced pilot could land a plane with only a call from Air Traffic Control. The Mythbusters had to use a simulation to test the myth but concluded that the scene was plausible. They did, however, mention that most planes today have an autopilot to land the plane safely.

In the 2012 film Ted, main character John Bennett tells the story of how he met Lori Collins. The flashback is a close recreation of the scene where Ted Striker met Elaine Dickinson in the disco.[49]

In early 2014, Delta Air Lines began using a new on-board safety film with many 1980s references, featuring an ending with a cameo of Kareem Abdul-Jabbar reprising his role as co-pilot Roger Murdock.[50]

In 2014, Travel Wisconsin began airing an ad with Robert Hays and Kareem Abdul-Jabbar reprising their roles from the film. Kareem makes the comment "Why did I ever leave this place?" referring to his time playing for the Milwaukee Bucks.[51][52][53] Hays also reprises his role as an airline pilot in Sharknado 2: The Second One.

The first episode of the eighth season of the TV series The Goldbergs re-enacts certain scenes.

Sequel[edit]

Airplane II: The Sequel, first released on December 10, 1982, attempted to tackle the science fiction film genre, though there was still emphasis on the general theme of disaster films. Although most of the cast reunited for the sequel, the writers and directors of Airplane! chose not to be involved. In the DVD commentary for Airplane! David Zucker, Jim Abrahams, and Jerry Zucker claim to have never seen nor to have any desire to see Airplane II.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^At the time of production, Caitlyn was still known as Bruce Jenner

References[edit]

  1. ^ abGinsberg, Steven (July 2, 1980). "'Empire' Major Exception To B.O. Slump, Hits $65-Mil In Five Wks". Variety. p. 3.
  2. ^"Airplane!". British Board of Film Classification. Archived from the original on March 16, 2021. Retrieved February 14, 2015.
  3. ^"Airplane! (1980) - Financial Information". The Numbers. Archived from the original on June 20, 2014. Retrieved August 15, 2010.
  4. ^ abD'Alessandro, Anthony (July 15, 2002). "Top 50 worldwide grossers". Variety. p. 52, Paramount at 90 supplement.
  5. ^"Airplane! (1980)". British Film Institute. Archived from the original on December 16, 2017. Retrieved December 16, 2017.
  6. ^ ab"Airplane!". Turner Classic Movies. Archived from the original on August 16, 2016. Retrieved May 21, 2016.
  7. ^ ab"Movie Airplane! – Box Office Data, News, Cast Information". The Numbers. July 4, 1980. Archived from the original on July 31, 2010. Retrieved August 15, 2010.
  8. ^"Bravo's 100 Funniest Movies of All Time". Bravo. December 31, 2013. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved April 28, 2020.
  9. ^"Life of Brian named best comedy". BBC News. Archived from the original on December 10, 2013. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
  10. ^"The 50 Funniest Comedies Ever". Empire. Archived from the original on September 13, 2015. Retrieved February 6, 2015.
  11. ^"Hollywood Blockbusters, Independent Films and Shorts Selected for 2010 National Film Registry". Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. Archived from the original on February 28, 2017. Retrieved May 18, 2020.
  12. ^Barnes, Mike (December 28, 2010). "'Empire Strikes Back,' 'Airplane!' Among 25 Movies Named to National Film Registry". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on December 30, 2010. Retrieved December 28, 2010.
  13. ^"Complete National Film Registry Listing | Film Registry | National Film Preservation Board | Programs at the Library of Congress | Library of Congress". Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved May 18, 2020.
  14. ^ abcdefghijkHarris, Will (April 17, 2015). "Surely you can't be serious: An oral history of Airplane!". The A.V. Club. Archived from the original on April 18, 2015. Retrieved April 17, 2015.
  15. ^ abcdeEmery, Robert J. (2002). "The films of Jerry Zucker, Jim Abrahams and David Zucker". The Directors: Take One. Allworth Communications, Inc. pp. 337–342. ISBN .
  16. ^ abcdefghiChilton, Martin (June 29, 2020). "Inflatable pilots, inappropriate jokes and 'jive talk': the madcap making of Airplane!". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on July 2, 2020. Retrieved July 2, 2020.
  17. ^ abRabin, Nathan (October 4, 2011). "Random Roles: Robert Hays". avclub.com. Archived from the original on October 31, 2012. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
  18. ^ abcd"Surely It's 30 (Don't Call Me Shirley!)". The New York Times. June 25, 2010. Archived from the original on June 30, 2010. Retrieved June 30, 2010.
  19. ^"The Total Film Interview – Christopher Lee". Total Film. May 1, 2005. Archived from the original on June 12, 2007. Retrieved August 25, 2013.
  20. ^Jon Davison, Jim Abrahams, Jerry Zucker, David Zucker. Airplane! audio commentary (DVD). Paramount Pictures. Event occurs at 9:50–10:00. ISBN .
  21. ^https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/arts-and-entertainment/wp/2015/09/16/bill-murray-has-missed-out-on-a-lot-of-big-movies-heres-every-strange-reason-why/
  22. ^"Fred Willard Charmingly Recounts Turning Down a Role in Airplane!". April 8, 2011.
  23. ^Katie Levine (May 4, 2012). "Nerdist Podcast: Airplane! (The Movie)". Nerdist (Podcast). Event occurs at 33:50. Archived from the original on February 22, 2015. Retrieved March 11, 2015.
  24. ^"La-La Land Records Announces a Special Mayday Alert!". Lalalandrecords.com. Archived from the original on August 19, 2010. Retrieved August 15, 2010.
  25. ^"Airplane! (Music from the Motion Picture)". iTunes Music Store. Archived from the original on July 26, 2014. Retrieved March 15, 2013.
  26. ^"Fasten Your Seatbelts! (advertisement)". Variety. July 2, 1980. p. 17.
  27. ^"'Evil' Ominous 16G, Buff.; 'Lagoon' 7G". Variety. July 9, 1980. p. 14.
  28. ^"Fox's Senior Notes, Debentures Primed For Undetailed Uses". Variety. July 9, 1980. p. 3.
  29. ^"Airplane! (1980)". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on March 26, 2015. Retrieved February 6, 2015.
  30. ^"Greatest Films of 1980". Filmsite.org. Archived from the original on July 22, 2010. Retrieved August 15, 2010.
  31. ^Ethan Morris (June 14, 2007). "The 10 Best Movies of 1980". Film.com. Archived from the original on August 12, 2010. Retrieved August 15, 2010.
  32. ^"The Best Movies of 1980 by Rank". Films101.com. Archived from the original on September 6, 2010. Retrieved August 15, 2010.
  33. ^Airplane! at IMDb
  34. ^"Airplane! (1980)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango. Archived from the original on July 22, 2010. Retrieved January 3, 2021.
  35. ^"Airplane! Reviews". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on June 21, 2018. Retrieved July 3, 2018.
  36. ^"Airplane! :: rogerebert.com :: Reviews". Rogerebert.com. Archived from the original on September 14, 2013. Retrieved August 15, 2010.
  37. ^Janet Maslin (July 2, 1980). "Airplane! (1980)". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 17, 2012. Retrieved December 2, 2010.
  38. ^"Empire Features". Empire. Archived from the original on January 19, 2012. Retrieved August 15, 2010.
  39. ^"The Best 1,000 Movies Ever Made". The New York Times. April 29, 2003. Archived from the original on March 29, 2005. Retrieved April 23, 2010.
  40. ^"101 Funniest Screenplays List". Writers Guild of America, West. November 11, 2015. Archived from the original on February 2, 2016. Retrieved April 25, 2019.
  41. ^Brod, Doug (October 16, 1992). "The Kings of Comedy". Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original on September 4, 2015. Retrieved July 22, 2009.
  42. ^"Synopsis: SST Death Flight". Turner Classic Movies. Archived from the original on October 20, 2014. Retrieved December 7, 2014.
  43. ^Dalton, Andrew; Thomas, Bob (November 29, 2010). "'Airplane!', 'Forbidden Planet' actor Nielsen dies". Associated Press. Archived from the original on December 8, 2010. Retrieved November 30, 2010.
  44. ^"AFI's 100 Years...100 Laughs"(PDF). American Film Institute. Archived(PDF) from the original on March 16, 2013. Retrieved July 17, 2016.
  45. ^"AFI's 100 Years...100 Movie Quotes"(PDF). American Film Institute. Archived(PDF) from the original on March 8, 2011. Retrieved July 17, 2016.
  46. ^Kenneth Turan (November 19, 2010). "Movie review: 'Jews and Baseball: An American Love Story'". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on December 4, 2010. Retrieved December 12, 2010.
  47. ^"Film". Jewsandbaseball.com. Archived from the original on August 11, 2010. Retrieved December 12, 2010.
  48. ^"'Ted': Will 'Ted' Make You Feel Guilty For Laughing?". The Huffington Post. June 22, 2012. Archived from the original on March 12, 2014. Retrieved October 9, 2013.
  49. ^Joel Landau (January 29, 2014). "SEE IT: Delta Airlines promotes safety in 1980s-themed video". Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved June 9, 2014.
  50. ^"Kareem". THE OFFICIAL SITE OF THE MILWAUKEE BUCKS. Archived from the original on February 6, 2016. Retrieved January 30, 2016.
  51. ^"Kareem: The return of the King". The Official Site of the Milwaukee Bucks. National Basketball Association. November 21, 2007. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017. Retrieved January 29, 2016.
  52. ^"Lew Alcindor jersey sells for $95,600". Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel. Journal Group. February 24, 2013. Archived from the original on March 31, 2016. Retrieved January 29, 2016.

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Airplane!
Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Airplane!

Happy Flight

For the Soviet film, see Happy Flight (1949 film).

2008 Japanese film

Happy Flight (ハッピーフライト, Happī Furaito) is a Japanese comedy film directed by Shinobu Yaguchi about pilots and flight attendants. All Nippon Airways (ANA) backed the creation of the film. The airline sponsored a giveaway of Happy Flight DVDs and other items to certain members of ANA's mileage club.[1]

Plot[edit]

Kazuhiro Suzuki, a copilot who is trying to qualify as a pilot, and Etsuko Saitō, a young flight attendant going on her first international flight, service an All Nippon Airways747-400 as Flight 1980 from Haneda Airport to Honolulu International Airport. Suzuki feels stressed when Captain Noriyoshi Harada becomes his evaluator, while Saitō under Chief Purser Reiko Yamazaki. The 747 has been reported with malfunctioning heated pitot tubes, but Noriyoshi decides to postpone repair to avoid delays, relying on redundant instruments. Immediately after takeoff, which involved bird patrol to fend off surrounding pigeons, an alarm prompts Noriyoshi to switch to the backup pitot tube as their primary indication.

Inflight services commence shortly after. Due to the overbooked flight, not all passengers could receive their first choice of lunch between beef and fish; Reiko gives Saitō a lesson in dealing with demand imbalance: promoting the less wanted fish. She follows through with her first mishap, describing the beef as "plain and ordinary." She then fumbles orders for white wine, apple juice, and motion sickness drugs. She corrects the drink orders, but the ill passenger vomits onto her uniform.

Meanwhile, the plane behaves erratically under Noriyoshi's command. Kazuhiro responds to passenger Ground staff confirms that the 747 suffered a bird strike; the engines ingested a bird without failing, but the bird also disabled the remaining pitot tubes, freezing the plane at cruising altitude. The aircraft has lost all indication of airspeed until they descend to below 22,000 feet, where air temperature is above freezing point. The captain elects to return to Haneda, now suffering from severe weather conditions. The flight crew and ground controllers then have to work together to land the plane, win the cooperation of the ill passenger, and determine if the maintenance crew was at fault for the aircraft's failure.

Cast[edit]

Reception[edit]

Mark Schilling of The Japan Times reviewed the film, giving it three of five stars. Schilling said that he "felt somewhat like a convict watching a prison film whose heroes are the trustees and guards — and feeling the filmmakers aren't getting the whole story."[1]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Happy_Flight
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In-flight entertainment

IFE control integrated in an armrest

In-flight entertainment (IFE) refers to the entertainment available to aircraft passengers during a flight. In 1936, the airship Hindenburg offered passengers a piano, lounge, dining room, smoking room, and bar during the 2+1⁄2-day flight between Europe and America.[1] After World War II, IFE was delivered in the form of food and drink services, along with an occasional projector movie during lengthy flights. In 1985 the first personal audio player was offered to passengers, along with noise cancelling headphones in 1989.[2] During the 1990s, the demand for better IFE was a major factor in the design of aircraft cabins. Before then, the most a passenger could expect was a movie projected on a screen at the front of a cabin, which could be heard via a headphone socket at his or her seat. Now, in most aircraft, private IFE TV screens are offered.

Design issues for IFE include system safety, cost efficiency, software reliability, hardware maintenance, and user compatibility.

The in-flight entertainment on board airlines is frequently managed by content service providers.

History[edit]

The first in-flight film screened during the 1921 Parade of Progress Exposition in Chicago
Movie screening in a DC-8of SAS, 1968

The first in-flight movie was in 1921 on Aeromarine Airways, showing a film called Howdy Chicago to its passengers as the amphibious airplane flew around Chicago.[3] The film The Lost World was shown to passengers of an Imperial Airways flight in April 1925 between London (Croydon Airport) and Paris.[4]

Eleven years later, in 1932, the first in-flight television called 'media event' was shown on a Western Air Express Fokker F.10 aircraft.[3]

The post-WWII British Bristol Brabazon airliner was initially specified with a 37-seat cinema within its huge fuselage; this was later reduced to a 23-seat cinema sharing the rear of the aircraft with a lounge and cocktail bar. The aircraft never entered service.[5]

However, it was not until the 1960s that in-flight entertainment (other than reading, sitting in a lounge and talking, or looking out the window) was becoming mainstream and popular. In 1961, David Flexer of Inflight Motion Pictures developed the 16mm film system using a 25-inch reel for a wide variety of commercial aircraft. Capable of holding the entire film, and mounted horizontally to maximize space, this replaced the previous 30-inch-diameter film reels. In 1961, TWA committed to Flexer's technology and was first to debut a feature film in flight.[3] Interviewed by the New Yorker in 1962, Mr Flexner said, "an awful lot of ingenuity has gone into this thing, which started from my simply thinking one day, in flight, that air travel is both the most advanced form of transportation and the most boring.”[6] Amerlon Productions, a subsidiary of Inflight, produced at least one film, Deadlier Than the Male, specifically for use on airplanes. Pakistan International Airlines was the first international airline to introduce this entertainment system showing a regularly scheduled film on board in the year 1962.[7][8]

In 1963, Avid Airline Products developed and manufactured the first pneumatic headset used on board the airlines and provided these early headsets to TWA. These early systems consisted of in-seat audio that could be heard with hollow tube headphones.[3] In 1979, pneumatic headsets were replaced by electronic headsets. The electronic headsets were initially available only on selected flights and premium cabins, whereas economy class still had to make do with the old pneumatic headsets.[citation needed] In the United States, the last airline to offer pneumatic headphones was Delta Air Lines, which switched to electronic headphones in 2003, despite the fact that all Delta aircraft since 1982, when the Boeing 767-200 was adopted, have included jacks for electronic headphones.

Throughout the early to mid-1960s, some in-flight movies were played back from videotape, using early compact transistorized videotape recorders made by Sony (such as the SV-201 and PV-201) and Ampex (such as the VR-660 and VR-1500), and played back on CRT monitors mounted on the upper sides in the cabin above the passenger seats with several monitors placed a few seats apart from each other. The audio was played back through the headsets.

In 1971, TRANSCOM developed the 8mm film cassette. Flight attendants could now change movies in-flight and add short subject programming.

In the late 1970s and early 1980s, CRT-based projectors began to appear on newer widebody aircraft, such as the Boeing 767. These used LaserDiscs or video cassettes for playback. Some airlines upgraded the old film IFE systems to the CRT-based systems in the late 1980s and early 1990s on some of their older widebodies. In 1985, Avicom introduced the first audio player system, based on the Philips Tape Cassette technology. In 1988, the Airvision company introduced the first in-seat audio/video on-demand systems using 2.7 inches (69 mm) LCD technology for Northwest Airlines.[citation needed] The trials, which were run by Northwest Airlines on its Boeing 747 fleet, received overwhelmingly positive passenger reaction. As a result, this completely replaced the CRT technology.[citation needed]

Today, in-flight entertainment is offered as an option on almost all wide body aircraft, while some narrow body aircraft are not equipped with any form of in-flight entertainment at all. This is mainly due to the aircraft storage and weight limits. The Boeing 757 was the first narrow body aircraft to widely feature both audio and video in-flight entertainment and today it is rare to find a Boeing 757 without an in-flight entertainment system. Most Boeing 757s feature ceiling-mounted CRT screens, although some newer 757s may feature drop-down LCDs or audio-video on demand systems in the back of each seat. Many Airbus A320 series and Boeing 737 Next Generation aircraft are also equipped with drop-down LCD screens. Some airlines, such as WestJet, United Airlines, and Delta Air Lines, have equipped some narrow body aircraft with personal video screens at every seat. Others, such as Air Canada and JetBlue, have even equipped some regional jets with VOD.

For the introduction of personal TVs on board jetBlue, company management tracked that lavatory queuing went far down. They originally had two planes, one with functioning IFE and one with none; the functioning one later was called "the happy plane".[9]

System safety and regulation[edit]

One major obstacle in creating an in-flight entertainment system is system safety. With the sometimes miles of wiring involved, voltage leaks and arcing become a problem. This is of more than theoretical concern. The IFE system was implicated in the crash of Swissair Flight 111 in 1998. To contain any possible issues, the in-flight entertainment system is typically isolated from the main systems of the aircraft. In the United States, for a product to be considered safe and reliable, it must be certified by the FAA and pass all of the applicable requirements found in the Federal Aviation Regulations. The concerning section, or title, dealing with the aviation industry and the electronic systems embedded in the aircraft, is CFR title 14 part 25. Contained inside Part 25 are rules relating to the aircraft's electronic system.[10]

There are two major sections of the FAA's airworthiness regulations that regulate flight entertainment systems and their safety in transport category aircraft: 14 CFR 25.1301 which approves the electronic equipment for installation and use, by assuring that the system in question is properly labeled, and that its design is appropriate to its intended function.[11] 14 CFR 25.1309 states that the electrical equipment must not alter the safety or functionality of the aircraft upon the result of a failure.[12] One way for the intended IFE system to meet this regulatory requirement is for it to be independent from the aircraft's main power source and processor. By separating the power supplies and data links from that of the aircraft's performance processor, in the event of a failure the system is self-contained, and can not alter the functionality of the aircraft. Upon a showing of compliance to all of the applicable U.S. regulations the in-flight entertainment system is capable of being approved in the United States. Certain U.S. design approvals for IFE may be directly accepted in other countries, or may be capable of being validated, under existing bilateral airworthiness safety agreements.

Cost efficiency[edit]

The companies involved are in a constant battle to cut costs of production, without cutting the system's quality and compatibility. Cutting production costs may be achieved by anything from altering the housing for personal televisions, to reducing the amount of embedded software in the in-flight entertainment processor. Difficulties with cost are also present with the customers, or airlines, looking to purchase in-flight entertainment systems. Most in-flight entertainment systems are purchased by existing airlines as an upgrade package to an existing fleet of aircraft. This cost can be anywhere from $2 million to $5 million for a plane to be equipped with a set of seat back LCD monitors and an embedded IFE system.[13] Some of the IFE systems are being purchased already installed in a new aircraft, such as the Airbus A320,[14] which eliminates the possibility of having upgrade difficulties. Some airlines are passing the cost directly into the customers ticket price, while some are charging a user fee based on an individual customers use. Some are also attempting to get a majority of the cost paid for by advertisements on, around, and in their IFE.

The largest international airlines sometimes pay more than $90,000 for a licence to show one movie over a period of two or three months. These airlines usually feature up to 100 movies at once, whereas 20 years ago they would have only 10 or 12. In the United States, airlines pay a flat fee every time the movie is watched by a passenger. Some airlines spend up to $20 million per year on content.[15]

Software reliability[edit]

Software for in-flight entertainment systems should be aesthetically pleasing, reliable, compatible, and also must be user friendly. These restrictions account for expensive engineering of individually specific software. In-flight entertainment equipment is often touch screen sensitive, and can be controlled with a handset, allowing interaction between each seat in the aircraft and the flight attendants, which is wireless in some systems.[citation needed] Along with a complete aircraft intranet to deal with, the software of the in-flight entertainment system must be reliable when communicating to and from the main in-flight entertainment processor. These additional requirements not only place an additional strain on the software engineers, but also on the price. Programming errors can slip through the testing phases of the software and cause problems.[16]

Varieties of in-flight entertainment[edit]

Moving-map systems[edit]

Simplified version of Airshow

A moving-map system is a real-time flight information video channel broadcast through to cabin project/video screens and personal televisions (PTVs). In addition to displaying a map that illustrates the position and direction of the plane, the system gives (utilizing both the imperial and metric systems) the altitude, airspeed, outside air temperature, distance to the destination, distance from the origination point, and origin/destination/local time (using both the 12-hour and 24-hour clocks). The moving-map system information is derived in real time from the aircraft's flight computer systems.[17]

The first moving-map system designed for passengers was named Airshow and introduced in 1982.[18] It was invented by Airshow Inc (ASINC), a small southern California corporation, which later became part of Rockwell Collins. KLM and Swissair were the first airlines to offer the moving map systems to their passengers.

The latest versions of moving-maps offered by IFE manufacturers include AdonisOne IFE, ICARUS Moving Map Systems, Airshow 4200 by Rockwell Collins, iXlor2 by Panasonic Avionics and JetMap HD by Honeywell Aerospace. In 2013, Betria Interactive unveiled FlightPath3D, a fully interactive moving-map that enables passengers to zoom and pan around a 3D world map using touch gestures, similar to Google Earth.[19] FlightPath3D was chosen by Norwegian as the moving-map on their new fleet of Boeing 787 Dreamliners, running on Panasonic's Android based touch-screen IFE system.[20]

After the attempted Christmas Day bombing of 2009, the United States Transportation Security Administration (TSA) briefly ordered the live-map shut-off on international flights landing in the United States. Some airlines complained that doing so may compel the entire IFE system to remain shut. After complaints from airlines and passengers alike, these restrictions were eased.

Audio entertainment[edit]

Audio entertainment covers music, as well as news, information, and comedy. Most music channels are pre-recorded and feature their own DJs to provide chatter, song introductions, and interviews with artists. In addition, there is sometimes a channel devoted to the plane's radio communications, allowing passengers to listen in on the pilot's in-flight conversations with other planes and ground stations.

In audio-video on demand (AVOD) systems, software such as MusicMatch is used to select music off the music server. Phillips Music Server is one of the most widely used servers running under Windows Media Center used to control AVOD systems.

This form of in-flight entertainment is experienced through headphones that are distributed to the passengers. The headphone plugs are usually only compatible with the audio socket on the passenger's armrest (and vice versa), and some airlines may charge a small fee to obtain a pair. The headphones provided can also be used for the viewing of personal televisions.

In-flight entertainment systems have been made compatible with XM Satellite Radio and with iPods, allowing passengers to access their accounts or bring their own music, along with offering libraries of full audio CDs from an assortment of artists.[21]

Video entertainment[edit]

iQ entertainment system on a Qantas A330

Video entertainment is provided via a large video screen at the front of a cabin section, as well as smaller monitors situated every few rows above the aisles. Sound is supplied via the same headphones as those distributed for audio entertainment.

However, personal televisions (PTVs) for every passenger provide passengers with channels broadcasting new and classic films, as well as comedies, news, sports programming, documentaries, children's shows, and drama series. Some airlines also present news and current affairs programming, which are often pre-recorded and delivered in the early morning before flights commence.

PTVs are operated via an in-flight Management System which stores pre-recorded channels on a central server and streams them to PTV equipped seats during flight. AVOD systems store individual programs separately, allowing a passenger to have a specific program streamed to them privately, and be able to control the playback.

Some airlines also provide video games as part of the video entertainment system. For example, Singapore Airlines passengers on some flights have access to a number of Super Nintendo games as part of its KrisWorld entertainment system. Also Virgin America's and Virgin Australia's Entertainment System offer passengers internet gaming over a Linux-based operating system.[22]

Personal televisions[edit]

Most airlines have now installed personal televisions (otherwise known as PTVs) for every passenger on most long-haul routes. These televisions are usually located in the seat-backs or tucked away in the armrests for front row seats and first class. Some show direct broadcast satellite television which enables passengers to view live TV broadcasts. Some airlines also offer video games using PTV equipment. Many are now providing closed captioning for deaf and hard-of-hearing passengers.

Audio-video on demand (AVOD) entertainment has also been introduced. This enables passengers to pause, rewind, fast-forward, or stop a program that they have been watching. This is in contrast to older entertainment systems where no interactivity is provided for. AVOD also allows the passengers to choose among movies stored in the aircraft computer system.

In addition to the personal televisions that are installed in the seatbacks, a new portable media player (PMP) revolution is under way.[when?] There are two types available: commercial off the shelf (COTS) based players and proprietary players. PMPs can be handed out and collected by the cabin crew, or can be "semi-embedded" into the seatback or seat arm. In both of these scenarios, the PMP can pop in and out of an enclosure built into the seat, or an arm enclosure. An advantage of PMPs is that, unlike seatback PTVs, equipment boxes for the inflight entertainment system do not need to be installed under the seats, since those boxes increase the weight of the aircraft and impede legroom.

In-flight movies[edit]

Personal on-demand videos are stored in an aircraft's main in-flight entertainment system, whence they can be viewed on demand by a passenger over the aircraft's built in media server and wireless broadcast system. Along with the on-demand concept comes the ability for the user to pause, rewind, fast forward, or jump to any point in the movie. There are also movies that are shown throughout the aircraft at one time, often on shared overhead screens or a screen in the front of the cabin. More modern aircraft are now allowing Personal Electronic Devices (PEDs) to be used to connect to the on board in-flight entertainment systems.[citation needed]

Regularly scheduled in flight movies began to premiere in 1961 on flights from New York to Los Angeles.[23] The first movie shown was By Love Possessed (1961), starring Lana Turner; it was first shown on July 19, 1961, when TWA showed it to its first-class passengers.

Closed-captioning[edit]

Closed captioning technology for deaf and hard-of-hearing passengers started in 2008 with Emirates Airlines. The captions are text streamed along with video and spoken audio and enables passengers to either enable or disable the subtitle/caption language. Closed captioning is capable of streaming various text languages, including Arabic, Chinese, English, French, German, Hindi, Spanish, and Russian. The technology is currently based on Scenarist file multiplexing so far; however, portable media players tend to use alternative technologies. A WAEA technical committee is trying to standardize the closed caption specification. In 2009, the US Department of Transportation ruled a compulsory use of captions of all videos, DVDs, and other audio-visual displays played for safety and/or informational purposes in aircraft should be high-contrast captioned (e.g., white letters on a consistent black background [14 CFR Part 382/ RIN 2105–AD41 /OST Docket No. 2006–23999]). As of 2013, several airlines, including

have closed-captioning provided on their AVOD systems.

In-flight games[edit]

Video games are another emerging facet of in-flight entertainment. Some game systems are networked to allow interactive playing by multiple passengers. Later generations of IFE games began to shift focus from pure entertainment to learning. The best examples of this changing trend are the popular trivia game series and the Berlitz Word Traveler that allows passengers to learn a new language in their own language. Appearing as a mixture of lessons and mini games, passengers can learn the basics of a new language while being entertained. Many more learning applications continue to appear in the IFE market.

Islamic prayers and directions to Mecca[edit]

In several airlines from the Muslim world the AVOD systems provide Qibla directions to allow Muslims to pray toward Mecca (e.g. Emirates, Turkish Airlines, Pakistan International Airlines, Etihad Airways, Malaysia Airlines, Qatar Airways, Royal Jordanian and Saudia); Malaysia Airlines has built-in Qur'ane-books and Garuda Indonesia has a unique Qur'an channel. Emirates also has built-in complete audio Qur'an.

In-flight connectivity[edit]

Ambox current red Americas.svg

This section needs to be updated. The reason given is: IFE is becoming more and more mainstream, not a rarity as depicted here. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(September 2019)

In recent years, IFE has been expanded to include in-flight connectivity—services such as Internet browsing, text messaging, cell phone usage (where permitted), and emailing. In fact, some in the airline industry have begun referring to the entire in-flight-entertainment category as "IFEC" (In-Flight Entertainment and Connectivity or In-Flight Entertainment and Communication).

The aircraft manufacturer Boeing entered into the in-flight-connectivity industry in 2000 and 2001 with an offshoot called Connexion by Boeing. The service was designed to provide in-flight broadband service to commercial airlines; Boeing built partnerships with United Airlines, Delta, and American. By 2006, however, the company announced it was closing down its Connexion operation. Industry analysts cited technology, weight, and cost issues as making the service unfeasible at the time. The Connexion hardware that needed to be installed on an aircraft, for example, weighed nearly 1,000 pounds (450 kg), which added more "drag" (a force working against the forward movement of the plane) and weight than was tolerable for the airlines.

Since the shuttering of Connexion by Boeing, several new providers have emerged to deliver in-flight broadband to airlines—notably Row 44, OnAir and AeroMobile (who offer satellite-based solutions), and Aircell (which offers air-to-ground connectivity via a cellular signal).

In the past few years, many US commercial airlines have begun testing and deploying in-flight connectivity for their passengers, such as Alaska Airlines, American, Delta, and United. Industry expectations were that by the end of 2011, thousands of planes flying in the US will offer some form of in-flight broadband to passengers. Airlines around the world are also beginning to test in-flight-broadband offerings as well.

Satellite and internal telephony[edit]

Now, airlines provide satellite telephones integrated into their system. These are either found at strategic locations in the aircraft or integrated into the passenger remote control used for the individual in-flight entertainment. Passengers can use their credit card to make phone calls anywhere on the ground. A rate close to US$10.00/minute is usually charged regardless of where the recipient is located and a connection fee may be applied even if the recipient does not answer. These systems are usually not capable of receiving incoming calls. There are also some aircraft that allow faxes to be sent and the rate is usually the same as the call rate, but at a per page rate. Some systems also allow the transmission of SMS.

More modern systems allow passengers to call fellow passengers located in another seat by simply keying in the recipient's seat number.

Data communication[edit]

IFE producers have begun to introduce Intranet type systems. Virgin America's, Virgin Atlantic's and Virgin Australia's Entertainment Systems allow for passengers to chat amongst one another, compete against each other in the provided games, talk to the flight attendants and request, and pay for in advance, food or drinks, and have full access to the internet and email. Other full service airlines such as China Airlines have launched IFEs with similar functionalities on board their Boeing 777 and Airbus A350 aircraft.

Wi-Fi[edit]

Several airlines are testing in-cabin wi-fi systems.[28] In-flight internet service is provided either through a satellite network or an air-to-ground network.[29] In the Airbus A380 aircraft, data communication via satellite system allows passengers to connect to live Internet from the individual IFE units or their laptops via the in-flight Wi-Fi access.[30]

Boeing's cancellation of the Connexion by Boeing system in 2006 caused concerns that inflight internet would not be available on next-generation aircraft such as Qantas's fleet of Airbus A380s and Boeing Dreamliner 787s. However, Qantas announced in July 2007 that all service classes in its fleet of A380s would have wireless internet access as well as seat-back access to email and cached web browsing when the Airbuses started operations in October 2008. Certain elements were also retrofitted into existing Boeing 747-400s.[31]

Sixteen major U.S. airlines now offer Wi-Fi connectivity service on their aircraft. The majority of these airlines use the service provided by Gogo Wi-Fi service. The service allows for Wi-Fi enabled devices to connect to the Internet. Delta currently has the most Wi-Fi equipped fleet with 500 aircraft that now offer in-flight Wi-Fi.[32]

In 2019, some airlines removed seatback screens, saving money by streaming video to passenger personal mobile devices.[33]

Mobile phone[edit]

Main article: Mobile phones on aircraft

As a general rule, mobile phone use while airborne is usually not just prohibited by the carrier, but also by regulatory agencies in the relevant jurisdiction (e.g. FAA and FCC in the US). However, with added technology, some carriers nonetheless allow the use of mobile phones on selected routes.

Emirates became the first airline to allow mobile phones to be used during flight. Using the systems supplied by telecom company AeroMobile, Emirates launched the service commercially on 20 March 2008.[34] Installed first on an Airbus A340-300, AeroMobile is presently operating across the entire Emirates fleet of Boeing 777s and Airbus A380s.[35]

Ryanair had previously aimed to become the first airline to enable mobile phone usage in the air, but instead ended up launching its system commercially in February 2009.[36] The system is set up on 22 737-800 jets based at Dublin Airport and was fitted on Ryanair's 200+ fleet off 737-800 jets by 2010.

OnAir offers inflight mobile connectivity to a range of airlines through its GSM network. The GSM network connects to the ground infrastructure via an Inmarsat SwiftBroadband satellite which provides consistent global coverage.

Virgin Australia also has an onboard Wi-Fi service, free on all domestic flights but paid based on time usage aboard international flights (as of 2020 this is no longer available), however since their takeover by Bain capital Virgin Australia has reverted to In-flight streaming without live internet access. It is said to be "reviewed" as a part of their overall goal to pull Virgin Australia from bankruptcy

China Airlines and Singapore Airlines also have similar Wi-Fi services, paid in a similar way to Virgin Australia's service.

Backbone connectivity[edit]

While SpaceX and OneWeb are testing low Earth orbit satellites, with Amazon seeking approval for more, and companies like AeroVironment are working on HAPS prototypes, aircraft-based connectivity upstarts like Simi Valley, AWN or Aeronet Global Communications Services are dwindling down.[37]

References[edit]

  1. ^Hindenburg interiors
  2. ^Bridge, The Broadcast. "How a "Genius" Engineer Designed the First Noise Cancelling Headsets - The Broadcast Bridge - Connecting IT to Broadcast". www.thebroadcastbridge.com. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
  3. ^ abcdWhite, John Norman. "A History of Inflight Entertainment"(PDF). Airline Passenger Experience Association. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
  4. ^"An Aerial " Picture Theatre "", Flight: 225, 16 April 1925
  5. ^"The Bristol Brabazon". Aviator Magazine. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
  6. ^Quoted in Rebecca Maksel, Bringing Inflight Movies to Airlines Was Harder Than It Sounds, airspacemag.com, Smithsonian, 12 June 2015
  7. ^Garros, Roland. "A History of INFLIGHT ENTERTAINMENT".
  8. ^"In-Flight Entertainment System History: Are You Not Entertained?". Tedium: The Dull Side of the Internet. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  9. ^Peterson, Barbara (2006). Blue Streak: Inside jetBlue, the Upstart that Rocked an Industry. Portfolio. p. xvi. ISBN .
  10. ^Code of Federal Regulations Title 14 Part 25 Federal Aviation Administration, Tuesday 10 April 2007
  11. ^"Code of Federal Regulations Title 14 Part 25 Section 25.1301". Archived from the original on 23 June 2010. Retrieved 22 June 2010.
  12. ^"Code of Federal Regulations Title 14 Part 25 Section 25.1309". Archived from the original on 23 June 2010. Retrieved 22 June 2010.
  13. ^In Flight Entertainment Goes High Tech Digital Journal, Tuesday 10 April 2007
  14. ^Airbus A-320 FamilyArchived 14 April 2007 at the Wayback Machine Airbus A-320 Family
  15. ^James Durston (26 August 2014). "Inside the billion-dollar, super-censored inflight movie industry". CNN.
  16. ^How to Crash an In Flight Entertainment SystemArchived 20 April 2007 at the Wayback Machine CSO the Resource for Security Executives, Tuesday 10 April 2007
  17. ^"US Patent #4975696 A - Real-time flight and destination display for aircraft passengers". Google Patents. 23 March 1987. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
  18. ^"AIRSHOW® 410 – Product Brochure". Airshow 410. Rockwell Collins. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
  19. ^"ArrivalGuides integrated in new Norwegian FlightPath3D Dreamliner service". travalution.co.uk. Travalution. 23 August 2013. Retrieved 16 February 2016.
  20. ^"Norwegian Launches FlightPath3D Moving Map Service on International Routes". PRWeb press releases. 8 December 2013. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
  21. ^Apple Teams Up With In Flight EntertainmentArchived 24 June 2011 at the Wayback MachineApple Computer, Tuesday 10 April 2007
  22. ^Virgin America's RED Entertainment System Engadget, Tuesday 10 April 2007
  23. ^First in Flight Movie Trivia Library, Tuesday 10 April 2007
  24. ^"Captioning In-Flight Entertainment: The Final Frontier". deaffriendly. 4 June 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  25. ^"Information for customers who are deaf or hearing impaired". Qantas. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  26. ^"Southwest to offer captioning on wireless IFE". Runway Girl Network. 21 November 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  27. ^"Information for Customers with Special Needs". Emirates.com. 18 May 2017. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  28. ^List of airlines offering inflight wifi eDreams Blog Thursday 22 August 2014
  29. ^In-flight Internet: Grounded for life? CNET News.com, Friday 25 January 2008
  30. ^[http://www.airportwifiguide.com/can-i-get-on-line-in-the-new-airbus-a380/ Airlines currently working on in-flight wi-fi access include Alaska Airlines, American Airlines, Continental Airlines, jetBlue, and Virgin America. Can I get on-line in the new Airbus A380?AirportWiFi Guide, Monday 25 June 2007
  31. ^Warne, Dan (24 July 2007). "Inflight internet lives again: Qantas introduces wireless broadband, laptop power in all classes". APCMag.com. Archived from the original on 30 August 2007. Retrieved 24 July 2007.
  32. ^Airlines In-flight WiFi Access Fees Table Airport WiFi Guide, Saturday 21 August 2010
  33. ^LaGrave, Katherine. "Delta Defies Trend, Keeps Adding Seat-Back Screens to Planes". Condé Nast Traveler. Retrieved 2 May 2019.
  34. ^"Don't switch off your mobile phone on this Emirates flight". Thaindian News. 21 March 2008. Retrieved 8 August 2017.
  35. ^"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 26 February 2009. Retrieved 11 August 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  36. ^Starmer-Smith, Charles (20 February 2009). "Ryanair mobile phone service: 'Hello, I'm on the plane'". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
  37. ^Michael Bruno (23 September 2019). "What Happened To Dreams of Commercial Aircraft-based Connectivity?". Aviation Week & Space Technology.

External links[edit]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/In-flight_entertainment
Best Scene from the movie Flight 1080p

Flight

Process by which an object moves, through an atmosphere or beyond it

For other uses, see Flight (disambiguation).

Flight or flying is the process by which an objectmoves through a space without contacting any planetary surface, either within an atmosphere (i.e. air flight or aviation) or through the vacuum of outer space (i.e. spaceflight). This can be achieved by generating aerodynamic lift associated with gliding or propulsive thrust, aerostatically using buoyancy, or by ballistic movement.

Many things can fly, from animal aviators such as birds, bats and insects, to natural gliders/parachuters such as patagial animals, anemochorousseeds and ballistospores, to human inventions like aircraft (airplanes, helicopters, airships, balloons, etc.) and rockets which may propel spacecraft and spaceplanes.

The engineering aspects of flight are the purview of aerospace engineering which is subdivided into aeronautics, the study of vehicles that travel through the atmosphere, and astronautics, the study of vehicles that travel through space, and ballistics, the study of the flight of projectiles.

Types of flight[edit]

Buoyant flight[edit]

Main article: Aerostat

An airship flies because the upward force, from air displacement, is equal to or greater than the force of gravity

Humans have managed to construct lighter-than-air vehicles that raise off the ground and fly, due to their buoyancy in air.

An aerostat is a system that remains aloft primarily through the use of buoyancy to give an aircraft the same overall density as air. Aerostats include free balloons, airships, and moored balloons. An aerostat's main structural component is its envelope, a lightweight skin that encloses a volume of lifting gas[1][2] to provide buoyancy, to which other components are attached.

Aerostats are so named because they use "aerostatic" lift, a buoyant force that does not require lateral movement through the surrounding air mass to effect a lifting force. By contrast, aerodynes primarily use aerodynamiclift, which requires the lateral movement of at least some part of the aircraft through the surrounding air mass.

Aerodynamic flight[edit]

Unpowered flight versus powered flight[edit]

Main article: Unpowered flight

Some things that fly do not generate propulsive thrust through the air, for example, the flying squirrel. This is termed gliding. Some other things can exploit rising air to climb such as raptors (when gliding) and man-made sailplane gliders. This is termed soaring. However most other birds and all powered aircraft need a source of propulsion to climb. This is termed powered flight.

Animal flight[edit]

Main article: Flying and gliding animals

The only groups of living things that use powered flight are birds, insects, and bats, while many groups have evolved gliding. The extinct pterosaurs, an order of reptiles contemporaneous with the dinosaurs, were also very successful flying animals.[3] Each of these groups' wingsevolved independently, with insects the first animal group to evolve flight.[4] The wings of the flying vertebrate groups are all based on the forelimbs, but differ significantly in structure; those of insects are hypothesized to be highly modified versions of structures that form gills in most other groups of arthropods.[3]

Bats are the only mammals capable of sustaining level flight (see bat flight).[5] However, there are several gliding mammals which are able to glide from tree to tree using fleshy membranes between their limbs; some can travel hundreds of meters in this way with very little loss in height. Flying frogs use greatly enlarged webbed feet for a similar purpose, and there are flying lizards which fold out their mobile ribs into a pair of flat gliding surfaces. "Flying" snakes also use mobile ribs to flatten their body into an aerodynamic shape, with a back and forth motion much the same as they use on the ground.

Flying fish can glide using enlarged wing-like fins, and have been observed soaring for hundreds of meters. It is thought that this ability was chosen by natural selection because it was an effective means of escape from underwater predators. The longest recorded flight of a flying fish was 45 seconds.[6]

Most birds fly (see bird flight), with some exceptions. The largest birds, the ostrich and the emu, are earthbound flightless birds, as were the now-extinct dodos and the Phorusrhacids, which were the dominant predators of South America in the Cenozoic era. The non-flying penguins have wings adapted for use under water and use the same wing movements for swimming that most other birds use for flight.[citation needed] Most small flightless birds are native to small islands, and lead a lifestyle where flight would offer little advantage.

Among living animals that fly, the wandering albatross has the greatest wingspan, up to 3.5 meters (11 feet); the great bustard has the greatest weight, topping at 21 kilograms (46 pounds).[7]

Most species of insects can fly as adults. Insect flight makes use of either of two basic aerodynamic models: creating a leading edge vortex, found in most insects, and using clap and fling, found in very small insects such as thrips.[8][9]

Mechanical[edit]

Main article: Aviation

Mechanical flight is the use of a machine to fly. These machines include aircraft such as airplanes, gliders, helicopters, autogyros, airships, balloons, ornithopters as well as spacecraft. Gliders are capable of unpowered flight. Another form of mechanical flight is para-sailing, where a parachute-like object is pulled by a boat. In an airplane, lift is created by the wings; the shape of the wings of the airplane are designed specially for the type of flight desired. There are different types of wings: tempered, semi-tempered, sweptback, rectangular and elliptical. An aircraft wing is sometimes called an airfoil, which is a device that creates lift when air flows across it.

Supersonic[edit]

Main article: Supersonic speed

Supersonic flight is flight faster than the speed of sound. Supersonic flight is associated with the formation of shock waves that form a sonic boom that can be heard from the ground,[10] and is frequently startling. This shockwave takes quite a lot of energy to create and this makes supersonic flight generally less efficient than subsonic flight at about 85% of the speed of sound.

Hypersonic[edit]

Main article: Hypersonic speed

Hypersonic flight is very high speed flight where the heat generated by the compression of the air due to the motion through the air causes chemical changes to the air. Hypersonic flight is achieved by reentering spacecraft such as the Space Shuttle and Soyuz.

Ballistic[edit]

Main article: Ballistics

Atmospheric[edit]

Some things generate little or no lift and move only or mostly under the action of momentum, gravity, air drag and in some cases thrust. This is termed ballistic flight. Examples include balls, arrows, bullets, fireworks etc.

Spaceflight[edit]

Main article: Spaceflight

Essentially an extreme form of ballistic flight, spaceflight is the use of space technology to achieve the flight of spacecraft into and through outer space. Examples include ballistic missiles, orbital spaceflight, etc.

Spaceflight is used in space exploration, and also in commercial activities like space tourism and satellite telecommunications. Additional non-commercial uses of spaceflight include space observatories, reconnaissance satellites and other earth observation satellites.

A spaceflight typically begins with a rocket launch, which provides the initial thrust to overcome the force of gravity and propels the spacecraft from the surface of the Earth.[11] Once in space, the motion of a spacecraft—both when unpropelled and when under propulsion—is covered by the area of study called astrodynamics. Some spacecraft remain in space indefinitely, some disintegrate during atmospheric reentry, and others reach a planetary or lunar surface for landing or impact.

Solid-state propulsion[edit]

In 2018, researchers at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) managed to fly an aeroplane with no moving parts, powered by an "ionic wind" also known as electroaerodynamic thrust.[12][13]

History[edit]

Many human cultures have built devices that fly, from the earliest projectiles such as stones and spears,[14][15] the boomerang in Australia, the hot air Kongming lantern, and kites.

Aviation[edit]

Main article: History of aviation

George Cayley studied flight scientifically in the first half of the 19th century,[16][17][18] and in the second half of the 19th century Otto Lilienthal made over 200 gliding flights and was also one of the first to understand flight scientifically. His work was replicated and extended by the Wright brothers who made gliding flights and finally the first controlled and extended, manned powered flights.[19]

Spaceflight[edit]

Main article: History of spaceflight

Spaceflight, particularly human spaceflight became a reality in the 20th century following theoretical and practical breakthroughs by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky and Robert H. Goddard. The first orbital spaceflight was in 1957,[20] and Yuri Gagarin was carried aboard the first manned orbital spaceflight in 1961.[21]

Physics[edit]

Lighter-than-air airshipsare able to fly without any major input of energy

Main article: Aerodynamics

There are different approaches to flight. If an object has a lower density than air, then it is buoyant and is able to float in the air without expending energy. A heavier than air craft, known as an aerodyne, includes flighted animals and insects, fixed-wing aircraft and rotorcraft. Because the craft is heavier than air, it must generate lift to overcome its weight. The wind resistance caused by the craft moving through the air is called drag and is overcome by propulsive thrust except in the case of gliding.

Some vehicles also use thrust for flight, for example rockets and Harrier Jump Jets.

Finally, momentum dominates the flight of ballistic flying objects.

Forces[edit]

Main forces acting on a heavier-than-air aircraft

Main article: Aerodynamics

Forces relevant to flight are[22]

These forces must be balanced for stable flight to occur.

Thrust[edit]

Main article: Thrust

A fixed-wing aircraft generates forward thrust when air is pushed in the direction opposite to flight. This can be done in several ways including by the spinning blades of a propeller, or a rotating fan pushing air out from the back of a jet engine, or by ejecting hot gases from a rocket engine.[23] The forward thrust is proportional to the mass of the airstream multiplied by the difference in velocity of the airstream. Reverse thrust can be generated to aid braking after landing by reversing the pitch of variable-pitch propeller blades, or using a thrust reverser on a jet engine. Rotary wing aircraft and thrust vectoringV/STOL aircraft use engine thrust to support the weight of the aircraft, and vector sum of this thrust fore and aft to control forward speed.

Lift[edit]

Main article: lift (force)

Lift is defined as the component of the aerodynamic forcethat is perpendicular to the flow direction, and drag is the component that is parallel to the flow direction

In the context of an air flow relative to a flying body, the lift force is the component of the aerodynamic force that is perpendicular to the flow direction.[24] Aerodynamic lift results when the wing causes the surrounding air to be deflected - the air then causes a force on the wing in the opposite direction, in accordance with Newton's third law of motion.

Lift is commonly associated with the wing of an aircraft, although lift is also generated by rotors on rotorcraft (which are effectively rotating wings, performing the same function without requiring that the aircraft move forward through the air). While common meanings of the word "lift" suggest that lift opposes gravity, aerodynamic lift can be in any direction. When an aircraft is cruising for example, lift does oppose gravity, but lift occurs at an angle when climbing, descending or banking. On high-speed cars, the lift force is directed downwards (called "down-force") to keep the car stable on the road.

Drag[edit]

Main article: Drag (physics)

For a solid object moving through a fluid, the drag is the component of the netaerodynamic or hydrodynamicforce acting opposite to the direction of the movement.[25][26][27][28] Therefore, drag opposes the motion of the object, and in a powered vehicle it must be overcome by thrust. The process which creates lift also causes some drag.

Lift-to-drag ratio[edit]

Speed and drag relationships for a typical aircraft

Main article: Lift-to-drag ratio

Aerodynamic lift is created by the motion of an aerodynamic object (wing) through the air, which due to its shape and angle deflects the air. For sustained straight and level flight, lift must be equal and opposite to weight. In general, long narrow wings are able deflect a large amount of air at a slow speed, whereas smaller wings need a higher forward speed to deflect an equivalent amount of air and thus generate an equivalent amount of lift. Large cargo aircraft tend to use longer wings with higher angles of attack, whereas supersonic aircraft tend to have short wings and rely heavily on high forward speed to generate lift.

However, this lift (deflection) process inevitably causes a retarding force called drag. Because lift and drag are both aerodynamic forces, the ratio of lift to drag is an indication of the aerodynamic efficiency of the airplane. The lift to drag ratio is the L/D ratio, pronounced "L over D ratio." An airplane has a high L/D ratio if it produces a large amount of lift or a small amount of drag. The lift/drag ratio is determined by dividing the lift coefficient by the drag coefficient, CL/CD.[29]

The lift coefficient Cl is equal to the lift L divided by the (density r times half the velocity V squared times the wing area A). [Cl = L / (A * .5 * r * V^2)] The lift coefficient is also affected by the compressibility of the air, which is much greater at higher speeds, so velocity V is not a linear function. Compressibility is also affected by the shape of the aircraft surfaces. [30]

The drag coefficient Cd is equal to the drag D divided by the (density r times half the velocity V squared times the reference area A). [Cd = D / (A * .5 * r * V^2)] [31]

Lift-to-drag ratios for practical aircraft vary from about 4:1 for vehicles and birds with relatively short wings, up to 60:1 or more for vehicles with very long wings, such as gliders. A greater angle of attack relative to the forward movement also increases the extent of deflection, and thus generates extra lift. However a greater angle of attack also generates extra drag.

Lift/drag ratio also determines the glide ratio and gliding range. Since the glide ratio is based only on the relationship of the aerodynamics forces acting on the aircraft, aircraft weight will not affect it. The only effect weight has is to vary the time that the aircraft will glide for – a heavier aircraft gliding at a higher airspeed will arrive at the same touchdown point in a shorter time.[32]

Buoyancy[edit]

Main article: Buoyancy

Air pressure acting up against an object in air is greater than the pressure above pushing down. The buoyancy, in both cases, is equal to the weight of fluid displaced - Archimedes' principle holds for air just as it does for water.

A cubic meter of air at ordinary atmospheric pressure and room temperature has a mass of about 1.2 kilograms, so its weight is about 12 newtons. Therefore, any 1-cubic-meter object in air is buoyed up with a force of 12 newtons. If the mass of the 1-cubic-meter object is greater than 1.2 kilograms (so that its weight is greater than 12 newtons), it falls to the ground when released. If an object of this size has a mass less than 1.2 kilograms, it rises in the air. Any object that has a mass that is less than the mass of an equal volume of air will rise in air - in other words, any object less dense than air will rise.

Thrust to weight ratio[edit]

Main article: Thrust-to-weight ratio

Thrust-to-weight ratio is, as its name suggests, the ratio of instantaneous thrust to weight (where weight means weight at the Earth's standard acceleration g_{0}).[33] It is a dimensionless parameter characteristic of rockets and other jet engines and of vehicles propelled by such engines (typically space launch vehicles and jet aircraft).

If the thrust-to-weight ratio is greater than the local gravity strength (expressed in gs), then flight can occur without any forward motion or any aerodynamic lift being required.

If the thrust-to-weight ratio times the lift-to-drag ratio is greater than local gravity then takeoff using aerodynamic lift is possible.

Flight dynamics[edit]

The upward tilt of the wings and tailplane of an aircraft, as seen on this Boeing 737, is called dihedral angle

Main article: Flight dynamics

Flight dynamics is the science of air and space vehicle orientation and control in three dimensions. The three critical flight dynamics parameters are the angles of rotation in three dimensions about the vehicle's center of mass, known as pitch, roll and yaw (See Tait-Bryan rotations for an explanation).

The control of these dimensions can involve a horizontal stabilizer (i.e. "a tail"), ailerons and other movable aerodynamic devices which control angular stability i.e. flight attitude (which in turn affects altitude, heading). Wings are often angled slightly upwards- they have "positive dihedral angle" which gives inherent roll stabilization.

Energy efficiency[edit]

Main article: propulsive efficiency

To create thrust so as to be able to gain height, and to push through the air to overcome the drag associated with lift all takes energy. Different objects and creatures capable of flight vary in the efficiency of their muscles, motors and how well this translates into forward thrust.

Propulsive efficiency determines how much energy vehicles generate from a unit of fuel.[34][35]

Range[edit]

Main article: range (aircraft)

The range that powered flight articles can achieve is ultimately limited by their drag, as well as how much energy they can store on board and how efficiently they can turn that energy into propulsion.[36]

For powered aircraft the useful energy is determined by their fuel fraction- what percentage of the takeoff weight is fuel, as well as the specific energy of the fuel used.

Power-to-weight ratio[edit]

Main article: power-to-weight ratio

All animals and devices capable of sustained flight need relatively high power-to-weight ratios to be able to generate enough lift and/or thrust to achieve take off.

Takeoff and landing[edit]

Main article: takeoff and landing

Vehicles that can fly can have different ways to takeoff and land. Conventional aircraft accelerate along the ground until sufficient lift is generated for takeoff, and reverse the process for landing. Some aircraft can take off at low speed; this is called a short takeoff. Some aircraft such as helicopters and Harrier jump jets can take off and land vertically. Rockets also usually take off and land vertically, but some designs can land horizontally.

Guidance, navigation and control[edit]

Main article: Guidance, navigation and control

Navigation[edit]

Navigation is the systems necessary to calculate current position (e.g. compass, GPS, LORAN, star tracker, inertial measurement unit, and altimeter).

In aircraft, successful air navigation involves piloting an aircraft from place to place without getting lost, breaking the laws applying to aircraft, or endangering the safety of those on board or on the ground.

The techniques used for navigation in the air will depend on whether the aircraft is flying under the visual flight rules (VFR) or the instrument flight rules (IFR). In the latter case, the pilot will navigate exclusively using instruments and radio navigation aids such as beacons, or as directed under radar control by air traffic control. In the VFR case, a pilot will largely navigate using dead reckoning combined with visual observations (known as pilotage), with reference to appropriate maps. This may be supplemented using radio navigation aids.

Guidance[edit]

Main article: Guidance system

A guidance system is a device or group of devices used in the navigation of a ship, aircraft, missile, rocket, satellite, or other moving object. Typically, guidance is responsible for the calculation of the vector (i.e., direction, velocity) toward an objective.

Control[edit]

Main article: Flight control system

A conventional fixed-wing aircraft flight control system consists of flight control surfaces, the respective cockpit controls, connecting linkages, and the necessary operating mechanisms to control an aircraft's direction in flight. Aircraft engine controls are also considered as flight controls as they change speed.

Traffic[edit]

In the case of aircraft, air traffic is controlled by air traffic control systems.

Collision avoidance is the process of controlling spacecraft to try to prevent collisions.

Flight safety[edit]

Main article: Aviation safety

Air safety is a term encompassing the theory, investigation and categorization of flight failures, and the prevention of such failures through regulation, education and training. It can also be applied in the context of campaigns that inform the public as to the safety of air travel.

See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Flight.

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^Walker 2000, p. 541. Quote: the gas-bag of a balloon or airship.
  2. ^Coulson-Thomas 1976, p. 281. Quote: fabric enclosing gas-bags of airship.
  3. ^ abAverof, Michalis. "Evolutionary origin of insect wings from ancestral gills."Nature, Volume 385, Issue 385, February 1997, pp. 627–630.
  4. ^Eggleton, Paul (2020). "The State of the World's Insects". Annual Review of Environment and Resources. 45: 61–82. doi:10.1146/annurev-environ-012420-050035.
  5. ^World Book Student. Chicago: World Book. Retrieved: April 29, 2011.
  6. ^"BBC article and video of flying fish."BBC, May 20, 2008. Retrieved: May 20, 2008.
  7. ^"Swan Identification."Archived 2006-10-31 at the Wayback MachineThe Trumpeter Swan Society. Retrieved: January 3, 2012.
  8. ^Wang, Z. Jane (2005). "Dissecting Insect Flight"(PDF). Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics. 37 (1): 183–210. Bibcode:2005AnRFM..37..183W. doi:10.1146/annurev.fluid.36.050802.121940.
  9. ^Sane, Sanjay P. (2003). "The aerodynamics of insect flight"(PDF). The Journal of Experimental Biology. 206 (23): 4191–4208. doi:10.1242/jeb.00663. PMID 14581590. S2CID 17453426.
  10. ^Bern, Peter. "Concorde: You asked a pilot."BBC, October 23, 2003.
  11. ^Spitzmiller, Ted (2007). Astronautics: A Historical Perspective of Mankind's Efforts to Conquer the Cosmos. Apogee Books. p. 467. ISBN .
  12. ^Haofeng Xu; et al. (2018). "Flight of an aeroplane with solid-state propulsion". 563. Nature. pp. 532–535. doi:10.1038/s41586-018-0707-9.
  13. ^Jennifer Chu (21 November 2018). "MIT engineers fly first-ever plane with no moving parts". MIT News.
  14. ^"Archytas of Tar entum."Archived December 26, 2008, at the Wayback MachineTechnology Museum of Thessaloniki, Macedonia, Greece/ Retrieved: May 6, 2012.
  15. ^"Ancient history."Archived 2002-12-05 at the Wayback MachineAutomata. Retrieved:May 6, 2012.
  16. ^"Sir George Cayley". Flyingmachines.org. Retrieved 27 August 2019.
  17. ^"The Pioneers: Aviation and Airmodelling". Retrieved 26 July 2009.
  18. ^"U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission – Sir George Cayley". Archived from the original on 20 September 2008. Retrieved 10 September 2008.
  19. ^"Orville Wright's Personal Letters on Aviation."Shapell Manuscript Foundation, (Chicago), 2012.
  20. ^"Sputnik and the Origins of the Space Age".
  21. ^"Gagarin anniversary."NASA. Retrieved: May 6, 2012.
  22. ^"Four forces on an aeroplane."NASA. Retrieved: January 3, 2012.
  23. ^http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/k-12/airplane/newton3.html[bare URL]
  24. ^"Definition of lift."Archived 2009-02-03 at the Wayback MachineNASA. Retrieved: May 6, 2012.
  25. ^French 1970, p. 210.
  26. ^"Basic flight physics."Berkeley University. Retrieved: May 6, 2012.
  27. ^"What is Drag?"Archived 2010-05-24 at the Wayback MachineNASA. Retrieved: May 6, 2012.
  28. ^"Motions of particles through fluids."Archived 2012-04-25 at the Wayback Machinelorien.ncl.ac. Retrieved: May 6, 2012.
  29. ^The Beginner's Guide to Aeronautics - NASA Glenn Research Center https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k-12/airplane/ldrat.html
  30. ^The Beginner's Guide to Aeronautics - NASA Glenn Research Center https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k-12/airplane/liftco.html
  31. ^The Beginner's Guide to Aeronautics - NASA Glenn Research Center https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k-12/airplane/dragco.html
  32. ^The Beginner's Guide to Aeronautics - NASA Glenn Research Center https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k-12/airplane/ldrat.html
  33. ^Sutton and Biblarz 2000, p. 442. Quote: "thrust-to-weight ratio F/W0 is a dimensionless parameter that is identical to the acceleration of the rocket propulsion system (expressed in multiples of g0) if it could fly by itself in a gravity free vacuum."
  34. ^ch10-3 "History."NASA. Retrieved: May 6, 2012.
  35. ^Honicke et al. 1968[page needed]
  36. ^"13.3 Aircraft Range: The Breguet Range Equation".
Bibliography
  • Coulson-Thomas, Colin. The Oxford Illustrated Dictionary. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1976, First edition 1975, ISBN 978-0-19-861118-9.
  • French, A. P. Newtonian Mechanics (The M.I.T. Introductory Physics Series) (1st ed.). New York: W. W. Norton & Company Inc., 1970.
  • Honicke, K., R. Lindner, P. Anders, M. Krahl, H. Hadrich and K. Rohricht. Beschreibung der Konstruktion der Triebwerksanlagen. Berlin: Interflug, 1968.
  • Sutton, George P. Oscar Biblarz. Rocket Propulsion Elements. New York: Wiley-Interscience, 2000 (7th edition). ISBN 978-0-471-32642-7.
  • Walker, Peter. Chambers Dictionary of Science and Technology. Edinburgh: Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd., 2000, First edition 1998. ISBN 978-0-550-14110-1.

External links[edit]

Look up flight in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Flights.

Flight travel guide from Wikivoyage

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flight

Wikipedia flight movie

Flight (2012 film)

2012 drama film by Robert Zemeckis

Flight is a 2012 American drama film directed by Robert Zemeckis, written by John Gatins and produced by Walter F. Parkes, Laurie MacDonald, Steve Starkey, Zemeckis and Jack Rapke. It stars Denzel Washington as William "Whip" Whitaker Sr., an alcoholic airline pilot who miraculously crash-lands his plane after a mechanical failure, saving nearly everyone on board. Immediately following the crash, he is hailed a hero but an investigation soon leads to questions that put the captain in a different light. This film is loosely inspired by the plane crash of Alaska Airlines Flight 261.

Principal photography began in October 2011 near Atlanta, Georgia and lasted over 45 days. It was largely shot on location, with visual effects and computer-generated imagery used to create the plane crash.

It received generally positive reviews from critics, with praise going to Zemeckis' direction and Washington's performance, Gatins' screenplay and themes. It was also a commercial success, grossing US$161.8 million against its US$31 million production budget. Flight was the first live-action film directed by Zemeckis since Cast Away and What Lies Beneath in 2000, and his first R-rated film since Used Cars in 1980.

The film appeared on multiple critics' year-end top ten lists and received multiple accolades and nominations from various organizations, including two nominations for Best Actor (Washington) and Best Original Screenplay (Gatins) at the 85th Academy Awards.

Plot[edit]

Airline pilot Captain Whip Whitaker uses cocaine to wake up after a sleepless night in his Orlando hotel room. He pilots SouthJet Flight 227 to Atlanta, which experiences severe turbulence at takeoff. Copilot Ken Evans takes over while Whip discreetly mixes vodka in his orange juice and takes a nap. He is jolted awake as the plane goes into a steep dive. Unable to regain control, Whip is forced to make a controlled crash landing in an open field, hitting his head and losing consciousness on impact.

Whip awakens in an Atlanta hospital with moderate injuries and is greeted by his old friend Charlie Anderson, who represents the airline's pilots union. He tells Whip that he managed to save 96 out of 102, losing two crew members and four passengers, but mentions his copilot is in a coma. Whip sneaks away for a cigarette and meets Nicole Maggen, a heroin addict recovering from a recent overdose in the same hospital. The next morning, his friend and drug dealer Harling Mays picks him up from the hospital.

Having retired to his late father's farm, Whip meets Charlie and attorney Hugh Lang, who explain that the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) performed a drug test while he was unconscious. Results showed that Whip was intoxicated during the flight. Hugh promises to get the toxicology report voided on technical grounds and succeeds. Whip visits and soon becomes intimate with Nicole but Whip's drinking habits clash with Nicole's attempts to stay drug-free. Later, he attends a funeral for Katerina, a flight attendant who died in the crash, and with whom Whip had spent the night before the incident. He sees a surviving crew member, Margaret, and asks her to tell the NTSB that he was sober.

Whip pays a visit to his copilot Ken Evans after he awakens from his coma. Evans has likely lost much of his ability to walk and may never pilot an airplane again. Although upset, Evans has no intention of telling the NTSB that Whip was drinking. Nicole decides to separate from Whip after he fails to stay sober. Hounding him, the media catches Whip drunk after he spontaneously drives to the home of his ex-wife and son, both of whom resent him. He stays with Charlie until the NTSB hearing, vowing not to drink. The night before the hearing, Charlie and Hugh move Whip to a guarded hotel room with no alcohol. Although his minibar is empty, he finds the door to an adjacent room unlocked and raids the minibar there.

Whip is discovered by Charlie the next morning, passed out and still drunk. Harling is called to revive him with cocaine. At the hearing, lead NTSB investigator Ellen Block explains that a damaged elevator assembly jackscrew was the primary cause of the crash. She commends Whip on his valor and skill, noting that no other pilot was able to land the plane in trial simulations of the crash. She then reveals that two empty vodka bottles were found in the plane's trash, despite beverages not being served to passengers, and that Whip's blood test was excluded for technical reasons. She then states the only other member of the crew to test positive for alcohol was Katerina. Whip pauses, unable to bring himself to blame Katerina for his actions. He collects himself and comes clean, admitting to being intoxicated the day of the crash; he also admits to currently being drunk.

Thirteen months later, an imprisoned Whip lecturing a support group of fellow inmates says he is glad to be sober and doesn't regret doing the right thing. Whip is seen looking at pictures of Nicole, family and friends on the wall of his cell, along with greeting cards congratulating him on his first anniversary of being sober. He is working to rebuild his relationship with his son, who visits to speak with him about a college application essay he's working on. It's about "the most fascinating person that I've never met". His son begins by asking, "Who are you?" As a plane flies overhead, Whip replies, "That's a good question".

Cast[edit]

Production[edit]

In August 2009, Variety reported that Walt Disney Pictures and filmmaker Robert Zemeckis were negotiating to produce a 3Dcomputer-animatedremake of Yellow Submarine. Motion capture was to be used, as with Zemeckis' previous animated films The Polar Express (2004), Monster House (2006), Beowulf (2007) and A Christmas Carol (2009). Variety also indicated that Disney hoped to release the film in time for the 2012 Summer Olympics in London.[4] Disney and Apple Corps officially announced the Yellow Submarine remake at the inaugural D23 Expo on 11 September 2009.[5]

Comedian Peter Serafinowicz was cast to voice Paul, Dean Lennox Kelly as John, Cary Elwes as George, Adam Campbell as Ringo and David Tennant as the Chief Blue Meanie.[6] California-based Beatles tribute bandthe Fab Four were then cast for performance-capture animation of the Beatles.[7][8]

In May 2010, Disney closed Zemeckis' digital film studio ImageMovers Digital after the unsatisfactory box-office performance of A Christmas Carol.[9] On 14 March 2011, Disney abandoned the project, citing the disastrous opening weekend results of Mars Needs Moms. Criticism toward motion-capture technology was also a factor.[9]

Zemeckis then entered negotiations to direct Flight in April 2011,[10] and by early June had accepted, with Denzel Washington about to finalize his own deal.[11] It was the first time that Zemeckis and Washington had worked together on a motion picture.

By mid-September 2011, Kelly Reilly was in negotiations to play the female lead,[12] with Don Cheadle,[13]Bruce Greenwood,[13] and John Goodman[14] joining later in the month, and Melissa Leo and James Badge Dale in final negotiations.[15] Screenwriter John Gatins said in early October 2011 that production would begin mid-month.[16]Flight was largely filmed on location near Atlanta, Georgia over 45 days in November 2011.[17] The film was produced with a relatively small budget of $31 million, which Zemeckis calculated to be his smallest in inflation-adjusted dollars since 1980, made possible because of tax rebates from Georgia and because Zemeckis and Washington waived their customary fees.[17]

Gatins explained in a 2012 interview with the Los Angeles Times that the dramatic fictional crash depicted in Flight was "loosely inspired" by the 2000 crash of Alaska Airlines Flight 261,[17] which was caused by a broken jackscrew. In that incident, an ungreased jackscrew came loose and caused a catastrophic failure from which recovery was impossible, though pilot Ted Thompson and first officer Bill Tansky were able to fly the plane inverted in the last moments of the flight. Among the captain's last words on the CVR were:

Okay we are inverted... Now we got to get it... Are we flying? We're flying... We're flying... Tell them what we're doing. At least upside down we're flying."[18]

The Alaska Airlines 261 crash had no survivors. The airplane in Flight, a two-engine T-tail jet airliner, appears to be from the same model family as was the plane involved in the Alaska Airlines 261 disaster, a variant of the MD-80. Many elements from the accident were used in the film, such as the cause of the accident, segments of the radio communication, and the inversion of the airplane.

Scroggins Aviation Mockup & Effects was hired to supply three decommissioned MD-80 series aircraft that represented the plane in the film, with additional MD-80-series aircraft used for scenes in the cabin and cockpit.[19][20]

Reception[edit]

Release[edit]

Flight opened in 1,884 theaters across the US and Canada on November 2, 2012. In its first week, the film ranked second in the American box office, grossing US$24,900,566 with an average of US$13,217 per theater. Flight earned US$93,772,375 in the US and an additional US$68,000,000 in other countries for a total of US$161,772,375, well above its US$31 million production budget.[3]

Critical response[edit]

Flight received mostly positive reviews, and has an approval rating of 78% based on a sample of 236 critics on Rotten Tomatoes, with a weighted average of 6.90/10. The site's consensus states "Robert Zemeckis makes a triumphant return to live-action cinema with Flight, a thoughtful and provocative character study propelled by a compelling performance from Denzel Washington".[21]Metacritic gives the film a weighted average score of 76 out of 100 based on reviews from 40 critics.[22]

Washington's performance received praise. The Hollywood Reporter's Todd McCarthy wrote that the film "provides Denzel Washington with one of his meatiest, most complex roles, and he flies with it".[1]Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times gave the film four out of four, writing "Flight segues into a brave and tortured performance by Denzel Washington—one of his very best. Not often does a movie character make such a harrowing personal journey that keeps us in deep sympathy all of the way." He also noted the plane's upside-down flight scene was "one of the most terrifying flight scenes I've ever witnessed" and called the film "nearly flawless".[23] Ebert went on to name the film the sixth best of 2012.[24] Although the film was not nominated for Best Picture, he later noted that it deserved to be. Entertainment Weekly wrote, "Denzel Washington didn't get an Oscar nod for nothing: His performance as an alcoholic airline pilot ensnared by his own heroics is crash-and-burn epic".[25]

The film received some criticism from pilots who questioned its realism, particularly the premise of a pilot being able to continue flying with a significant substance-abuse problem.[26] The Air Line Pilots' Association dismissed the film as an inaccurate portrayal of an air crew and stated that "we all enjoy being entertained, but a thrilling tale should not be mistaken for the true story of extraordinary safety and professionalism among airline pilots".[27] Airline pilot Patrick Smith also commented that "a real-life Whitaker wouldn't survive two minutes at an airline, and all commercial pilots—including, if not especially, those who've dealt with drug or alcohol addiction—should feel slandered by his ugly caricature".[28] The pilot also criticised the portrayal of the relationship between copilot and captain, the decision of Whitaker to increase speed dangerously in a storm, and the ultimate dive and crash landing of Whitaker's aircraft.[28]

Top ten lists[edit]

Awards and nominations[edit]

Award Category Subject Result
Academy AwardBest ActorDenzel WashingtonNominated
Best Original ScreenplayJohn GatinsNominated
AACTA AwardsBest International ActorDenzel Washington Nominated
Art Directors Guild AwardExcellence in Production Design for a Contemporary FilmNelson CoatesNominated
Black Reel AwardBest FilmFlightNominated
Best ActorDenzel Washington Won
Best Supporting ActressTamara TunieNominated
Best EnsembleThe Cast of FlightNominated
Broadcast Film Critics Association AwardBest ActorDenzel Washington Nominated
Best Original ScreenplayJohn Gatins Nominated
Chicago Film Critics Association AwardBest ActorDenzel Washington Nominated
Chicago International Film FestivalFounder's Award Robert ZemeckisWon
Dallas-Fort Worth Film Critics Association AwardBest ActorDenzel Washington Nominated
Golden Globe AwardBest Actor – Motion Picture DramaNominated
Hollywood Film FestivalSpotlight Award Kelly ReillyWon
NAACP Image AwardOutstanding Motion PictureFlightNominated
Outstanding ActorDenzel Washington Won
Outstanding Supporting ActorDon CheadleNominated
Outstanding Writing in a Motion Picture John Gatins Nominated
National Board of ReviewSpotlight Award John Goodman, also for Argo, ParaNorman, and Trouble with the CurveWon
Online Film Critics Society AwardBest ActorDenzel Washington Nominated
Palm Springs International Film Festival AwardDirector of the Year Robert Zemeckis Won
Satellite AwardBest Actor – Motion PictureDenzel Washington Nominated
Best Supporting Actor – Motion PictureJohn Goodman Nominated
Best Screenplay, Original John Gatins Nominated
Best Visual Effects Jim Gibbs, Kevin Baillie, Michael Lantieri and Ryan Tudhope Won
Best EditingJeremiah O'Driscoll Nominated
Best Sound (Editing & Mixing) Dennis Leonard, Dennis Sands, Randy Thom and William Kaplan Nominated
Screen Actors Guild AwardOutstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Leading RoleDenzel Washington Nominated
St. Louis Gateway Film Critics AssociationBest Actor Nominated
Best Scene (favorite movie scene or sequence) The plane crash Nominated
Visual Effects SocietyOutstanding Supporting Visual Effects in a Feature Motion Picture Kevin Ballie, Michael Lantieri, Chris Stoski, Ryan Tudhope Nominated
Washington DC Area Film Critics Association AwardBest Actor Denzel Washington Nominated
Writers Guild of America AwardBest Original ScreenplayJohn Gatins Nominated

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ abMcCarthy, Todd (October 15, 2012). "Flight: New York Film Festival Review". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved October 24, 2012.
  2. ^Horn, John (October 20, 2012). "How the movie 'Flight' got off the ground". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 4, 2012.
  3. ^ ab"Flight". boxofficemojo.com. Box Office Mojo.
  4. ^Fleming, Michael. "Disney, Zemeckis to board 'Submarine'". Variety, 19 August 2009.
  5. ^"Animation News Discussion Cartoon Community – toonzone news". News.toonzone.net. Archived from the original on 13 September 2012. Retrieved 9 February 2010.
  6. ^"Peter Serafinowicz IS Paul McCartney!". Empire. Retrieved 9 February 2010.
  7. ^Kreps, Daniel (12 January 2010). "Actors, Tribute Band Cast as Beatles in Zemeckis' "Yellow Submarine" Remake". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on 17 January 2010. Retrieved 12 January 2010.
  8. ^Hall, Russell (13 January 2010). "Main Cast Selected For Beatles' Yellow Submarine Remake". gibson.com. Archived from the original on 3 June 2011. Retrieved 13 January 2010.
  9. ^ abKit, Borys. Disney torpedoes Zemeckis' "Yellow Submarine"The Hollywood Reporter (14 March 2011).
  10. ^Kit, Borys (April 20, 2011). "Robert Zemeckis in Talks for Live-Action 'Flight' With Denzel Washington Circling". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
  11. ^Zeitchik, Steven (June 3, 2011). "Robert Zemeckis finally looks to take 'Flight'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
  12. ^White, James (September 13, 2011). "Kelly Reilly Takes Flight". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
  13. ^ abMorris, Clint (September 22, 2011). "Exclusive: Cheadle, Greenwood join Zemeckis's Flight". Moviehole.com. Archived from the original on February 23, 2014. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
  14. ^Fleming, Mike (September 28, 2011). "John Goodman Boards Robert Zemeckis' Flight With Denzel Washington". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
  15. ^Kit, Borys (September 30, 2011). "Melissa Leo, James Badge Dale Booking 'Flight' (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
  16. ^Warner, Kara (October 5, 2011). "Denzel Washington's "Flight" Is 12 Years In The Making". MTV. Retrieved November 7, 2011.
  17. ^ abcHorn, John (21 October 2012). "How the movie 'Flight' became airborne". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 28 October 2012. Retrieved 23 October 2012.
  18. ^"Aircraft Accident Report, Loss of Control and Impact with Pacific Ocean Alaska Airlines Flight 261 McDonnell Douglas MD-83, N963AS About 2.7 Miles [4.3 km] North of Anacapa Island, California, January 31, 2000"(PDF). National Transportation Safety Board. December 30, 2002. NTSB/AAR-02/01. Retrieved September 9, 2016.
  19. ^Flight used a former American Airlines MD-82, N442AA, the main fuselage for the crash mock-up, a more complete nose for filming, and a former Delta Air Lines MD-88, N901DL, and for on stage work, a former Continental Airlines MD-82, N16807. "'Flight' the Movie". Airliner World Magazine. No. April 2013.
  20. ^"Filming Hollywood's Flights of Fantasy, by Christine Negroni". Airways. January 7, 2013 – via Airways Magazine.
  21. ^Flight at Rotten TomatoesFandango
  22. ^"Flight". Metacritic. CBS.
  23. ^Ebert, Roger. "Roger Ebert Flight review". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
  24. ^Ebert, Roger. "Ebert's Top Movies of 2012". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on January 17, 2013. Retrieved August 20, 2013.
  25. ^Entertainment Weekly Staff (February 8, 2013). "The Must List". Entertainment Weekly. New York: Time Inc.: 8.
  26. ^Smith, Patrick (November 18, 2012). "Real Pilots Laugh at 'Flight'". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on November 27, 2012. Retrieved November 26, 2012.
  27. ^ALPA News Release. Alpa.org (October 31, 2012). Retrieved July 13, 2013.
  28. ^ abReal Pilots Laugh At ‘Flight’. The Daily Beast (November 18, 2012). Retrieved July 13, 2013.

External links[edit]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flight_(2012_film)
Passenger Plane Flies Upside Down - Flight - Hollywood vs Reality

Flight (1929 film)

1929 film

Flight is a 1929 adventure and aviation film directed by Frank Capra.[2] The film stars Jack Holt, Lila Lee and Ralph Graves, who also came up with the story, for which Capra wrote the dialogue.[Note 1] Dedicated to the United States Marine Corps, the production was greatly aided by their full cooperation.[4]

Plot[edit]

College football player Lefty Phelps (Ralph Graves) causes his school to lose the big game when he gets disoriented after a tackle and runs the wrong way. After being treated decently by gruff U.S. Marine Corps Sergeant "Panama" Williams (Jack Holt), a spectator, Phelps decides to enlist in the Marines himself. He is selected to attend pilot training school at Naval Air Station Pensacola, where Williams is a flying instructor. When Williams finally recognizes Lefty, he befriends him and takes him under his wing. On his first attempt at solo flight, however, Lefty is taunted about the football game by fellow recruit Steve Roberts (Harold Goodwin), and cannot take off, resulting in a crash. Panama rescues Lefty from the burning aircraft, suffering burns to his hands. Lefty is "washed out" by his squadron commander, Major Rowell (Alan Roscoe).

Lefty is taken to the base hospital, where he falls for Navy nurse Elinor Murray (Lila Lee). When the "Flying Devils" squadron is sent to quell bandit attacks by the notorious General Lobo in Nicaragua, Panama arranges for Lefty to accompany him as his mechanic. Panama shows Lefty a photograph of Elinor, the love of his life, not knowing Lefty is in love with her too. When Elinor is sent to Nicaragua, she does not understand the guilt-stricken Lefty's cool reception. When the girl-shy Panama asks Lefty to propose to Elinor on his behalf, Elinor confesses her love for him instead, after which Panama accuses Lefty of betrayal.

An urgent call for help by a Marine outpost under bandit attack stops any confrontation. Lefty flies as gunner for Steve Roberts, who makes fun of him about shooting in the right direction. During the mission, their aircraft is shot down in a swamp. Unwilling to join in the rescue, Panama reports in sick, but once Elinor convinces him that Lefty never betrayed him, he flies his own solo rescue mission. At the crash site, Roberts dies of his injuries and is cremated by Lefty using their aircraft as a funeral pyre. Panama finds Lefty but is wounded by bandits led by General Lobo, after his landing. Lefty kills the attacking bandits, takes off, and brings the pair back, putting on an impressive flying display over the base that includes safely landing the aircraft after it loses a wheel. Sometime later, Lefty has won his wings and is now an instructor at the school, married to Elinor. When his wife arrives in their new car, Lefty accidentally pulls away in reverse.

Cast[edit]

* uncredited

Production[edit]

At the time of production, Jack Holt's career with Columbia Pictures was as a leading man. Capra specifically asked for him to star as the laconic pilot and with the acquiescence of studio head Harry Cohn, his role in Flight was emblematic of the studio's reliance on the popular and profitable action film.[5][Note 2]

Receiving full cooperation from the Marine Corps, including the use of facilities and personnel at Naval Base San Diego and NAS North Island, provided the authentic settings Capra required.[4][Note 3] The initial flying sequence depicts the landing and taxi of an FB-1 fighter, with Holt stepping from the cockpit. { The flight training sequences were staged using Consolidated NY-1B trainers based at San Diego. Nine Marine Corps Curtiss OC-2 aircraft from Marine Attack Squadron 231 (VMA-231) were featured in the aerial combat sequences.[7] The squadron, along with VO-10M (Marine Observation Squadron 10), also prominently appeared in Devil Dogs of the Air (1935).[8]

A total of 28 aircraft were at Capra's disposal and with the benefit of using actual aircraft, Capra did not have to rely on "process shots" or special effects which was the standard of the day, although dangerous crash scenes and a mass night takeoff were staged using studio miniatures. Along with principal aerial photographer, Elmer Dyer, who filmed from a camera-equipped aircraft, Capra flew alongside in a director's aircraft to coordinate the aerial scenes. Jack Holt who was an accomplished pilot, flew in the film but crashed during one scene. Capra pushed for aerial close-ups and in one scene, wanted Holt to stand up in the cockpit but his parachute had deployed, and he remained seated, causing the scene to be abandoned.[Note 4] Noted Marine Corps exhibition pilots Lts. Bill Williams and Jerry Jerome were also involved in the production.[7]

Historical accuracy[edit]

Capra also shot on location in La Mesa and Fallbrook, California, used for the Nicaragua scenes. Although a fictional treatment, the military action depicted in Nicaragua was based on the Battle of Ocotal on July 16, 1927 when the Marines battled hundreds of Sandinista rebels.[8] Importing fire ants for the swamp scene became controversial as the ants were capable of biting through the actors' clothing.[Note 5]

The opening scene where the football star takes off in the wrong direction was based on Capra's recalling a notable incident he witnessed, along with Columbia studio boss Harry Cohn, during the 1929 Rose Bowl when Roy Riegels was tackled by his own team after picking up a fumble and running toward his own goal line. Footage from the actual game is used.[8][Note 6]

Reception[edit]

Flight garnered a lukewarm response from critics and did well at the box office.[10] Typical of the reviews was the one appearing in The New York Times: "During those all too brief moments when the producer skips away from melodramatic flubdub, tedious romantic passages and slapstick comedy and turns to scenes of airplanes in formation and flying stunts, 'Flight,' a talking film presented last night by Columbia Pictures Corporation at the George M. Cohan and dedicated to the United States Marines, is well worth watching."[11] In a later day review, Alun Evans lumped the film in with similar propaganda films of the silent era that depicted US involvement in Mexican and Latin American conflicts.[12]

Largely forgotten today, Flight is representative of Capra's early period and fits in well with the silent Submarine (1928) and later Dirigible (1931) as a trio of military-themed productions. Now available in home video, the film is rarely broadcast as it is considered a minor work in the Capra filmology.[12]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^The film's tagline was: "The first all-talking drama of the air will thrill you!"[3]
  2. ^After a famous feud with studio head, Harry Cohn, Holt's career with Columbia Pictures took a dramatic downturn, as he was reduced to taking secondary roles.[6]
  3. ^Capra readily utilized the machine gun in a fighter-bomber, along with "trippable" bombs that were offered to the production.[7]
  4. ^On landing, Capra had stormed over to Holt, but realized that the actor would have been in peril if he had followed the direction to stand up.[7]
  5. ^Holt had asked the prop manager to test the ants' ability to bite and witnessed the alarm when the ants attacked the man. Capra revised the scene accordingly.[9]
  6. ^The 1929 Rose Bowl is coincidentally notable for having a publicity overflight and aerial refueling demonstration by the experimental Air Corps aircraft nicknamed "?" on the first day of its week-long non-stop flight.

Citations[edit]

  1. ^Scherle and Levy 1977, p. 79.
  2. ^Scherle and Levy 1977, pp. 78–81.
  3. ^Scherle and Levy 1977, p. 80.
  4. ^ abCapra 1971, pp. 108–109.
  5. ^Dick 1992, p. 78.
  6. ^Blottner 2011, p. 7.
  7. ^ abcdCapra 1971, p. 109.
  8. ^ abcMcBride 1992, p. 205.
  9. ^Scherle and Levy 1977, pp. 79–80.
  10. ^Capra 1971, pp. 111–112.
  11. ^Hall, Mordaunt. "Review: Flight."The New York Times, September 14, 1929.
  12. ^ abEvans 2000, p. 71.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Blottner, Gene. Columbia Pictures Movie Series, 1926-1955: The Harry Cohn Years. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, 2011. ISBN 978-0-7864-3353-7.
  • Capra, Frank. Frank Capra, The Name Above the Title: An Autobiography. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1971. ISBN 0-306-80771-8.
  • Dick, Bernard F. Columbia Pictures: Portrait of a Studio. Lexington, Kentucky: The University Press of Kentucky, 1992. IISBN 978-0-8131-3019-4.
  • Dolan Edward F. Jr. Hollywood Goes to War. London: Bison Books, 1985. ISBN 0-86124-229-7.
  • Evans, Alun. Brassey's Guide to War Films. Dulles, Virginia: Potomac Books, 2000. ISBN 1-57488-263-5.
  • Harwick, Jack and Ed Schnepf. "A Viewer's Guide to Aviation Movies". The Making of the Great Aviation Films, General Aviation Series, Volume 2, 1989.
  • McBride, Joseph. Frank Capra: The Catastrophe of Success. New York: Touchstone Books, 1992. ISBN 0-671-79788-3.
  • Scherle, Victor and William Levy. The Films of Frank Capra. Secaucus, New Jersey: The Citadel Press, 1977. ISBN 0-8065-0430-7.

External links[edit]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flight_(1929_film)

You will also be interested:

Flightplan

2005 film by Robert Schwentke

This article is about the 2005 film. For the aeronautical term, see Flight plan. For other uses, see flight plan (disambiguation).

Flightplan is a 2005 psychological thrillermystery film directed by Robert Schwentke from a screenplay written by Peter A. Dowling and Billy Ray. It stars Jodie Foster as Kyle Pratt, a recently-widowed American aircraft engineer living in Berlin, who flies back to the U.S. with her daughter and her husband's body only to lose her daughter during the flight and must struggle to find her while proving her sanity at the same time.[N 1] It also features Peter Sarsgaard, Erika Christensen, Kate Beahan, Greta Scacchi, Sean Bean, and Matt Bomer.

Flightplan was distributed by Touchstone Pictures and was released worldwide theatrically on September 23, 2005. The film received mixed reviews from critics, who praised the direction, performances of the cast (particularly Foster's), the thriller elements of the film but criticized the screenplay, and was a major box office success grossing over $223 million worldwide against a $55 million budget. The film received two nominations at the 32nd Saturn Awards; Best Action or Adventure Film, and Best Actress (for Foster).

Plot[edit]

Recently-widowed Berlin-based American aviation engineer Kyle Pratt takes her husband David's body back to the U.S. with her 6-year-old daughter Julia, aboard an aircraft she helped design, a brand new Aalto Airlines Elgin E-474 (loosely based on the Airbus A380). Awakening from a nap, Kyle finds Julia missing, and none of the passengers or crew recall seeing her. Flight attendant Stephanie tells Kyle there is no record of her daughter boarding the flight, and Kyle is unable to find Julia's boarding pass and backpack. At Kyle's insistence, Captain Marcus Rich conducts a search of the aircraft, while the panicked Kyle is monitored by sky marshal Gene Carson.

Kyle reveals that her husband died falling from their roof, which she refuses to believe was suicide. Captain Rich receives a message from a Berlin hospital that Julia died with her father, and is convinced that Kyle, unhinged by her husband and daughter's deaths, imagined bringing Julia on board. The increasingly erratic Kyle is confined to her seat, where a therapist, Lisa, consoles her. Kyle doubts her own sanity until she notices the heart Julia drew on the foggy window next to her seat.

Kyle asks to use the bathroom, where she climbs into the overhead crawl space and sabotages the aircraft's electronics. In the ensuing chaos, she rides a dumbwaiter to the lower freight deck and unlocks David's casket, suspecting Julia is inside, but finds only her husband's body. Carson escorts her to her seat in handcuffs, and explains that the flight is making an emergency stopover at Goose Bay Airport, in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, where she will be taken into custody.

She pleads with Carson to search the aircraft's hold, and he sneaks down to the freight deck. Removing two explosives and a detonator concealed in David's casket, he plants the explosives in the avionics section. It is revealed that Carson and Stephanie have conspired to hijack the aircraft for a $50 million ransom and frame Kyle, due to her knowledge of the aircraft; they abducted Julia to force Kyle to unlock the casket. Carson lies to Rich that Kyle is threatening to bomb the aircraft unless the ransom is wired to a bank account and a G3 aircraft is readied upon landing. He then plans to detonate the explosives, killing Julia, and leave Kyle dead with the detonator.

Landing in Newfoundland, the airliner is surrounded by FBI agents. Kyle confronts Rich, who angrily declares that the ransom has been paid. Kyle realizes that Carson is the perpetrator and, assuming the role of hijacker, commands Carson to remain aboard and the crew to leave. She strikes Carson with a fire extinguisher, handcuffs him to a rail, and takes the detonator. Carson frees himself and pursues Kyle, who locks herself in the cockpit. She subdues Stephanie, who flees the airliner.

Kyle finds the unconscious Julia, and Carson reveals that he murdered David to smuggle the explosives inside his casket. Kyle escapes with Julia into the aircraft's non-combustible hold as Carson shoots at her. She detonates the explosives, killing Carson and damaging the aircraft's landing gear, but she and Julia emerge unscathed as the crew realize she had been telling the truth all along. The next morning, Captain Rich apologizes to Kyle as Stephanie is led away by the FBI, wherein an agent informs them that the Berlin mortuary director has also been arrested. Kyle carries Julia through the crowd of passengers who realize the truth. As a passenger assists Kyle in loading her luggage onto a waiting van, Julia awakens and asks if they have arrived.

Cast[edit]

Production[edit]

Development[edit]

Peter A. Dowling had the idea for Flightplan in 1999 on a phone conversation with a friend. His original pitch for producer Brian Grazer involved a man who worked on airport security doing a business trip from the United States to Hong Kong, and during the flight his son went missing. A few years later, Billy Ray took over the script, taking out the terrorists from the story and putting more emphasis on the protagonist, who became a female as Grazer thought it would be a good role for Jodie Foster. The story then focused on the main character regaining her psyche, and added the post-September 11 attacks tension and paranoia. There was also an attempt to hide the identity of the villain by showcasing the different characters on the plane. Both Dowling and Ray were allowed to visit the insides of a Boeing 747 at the Los Angeles International Airport to develop the limited space on which the story takes place.[4] The film also draws on Alfred Hitchcock's The Lady Vanishes, in which an older woman goes missing on board a train and only one passenger remembers her, especially in the scene where Kyle discovers the heart drawn by her daughter on the plane window.

Casting[edit]

Schwentke said that to make Flightplan as realistic as possible, he wanted naturalistic, subdued performances. One example was Peter Sarsgaard, whom he described as an actor "who can all of a sudden become a snake uncoiling". First-time actress Marlene Lawston was cast as Foster's character's daughter Julia. Sean Bean was cast to subvert his typecasting as a villain and mislead audiences into thinking he was part of the villainous plot.[4] The director also picked each of the 300 passengers through auditions.[5]

Filming[edit]

Schwentke described Flightplan as a "slow boiling" thriller, where the opening is different from the faster ending parts. The director added that sound was used to put audiences "off-kilter".[4]

The art direction team had to build all the interiors and the cockpit of the fictional E-474 from scratch, basing both the interior design and layout on the Airbus A380. It is noted that the amount of dead space within the cabin, cargo and avionic areas do not reflect the actual amount of dead space within any aircraft. BE Aerospace provided various objects to "stage the scene"; "many of the interior sets used real aircraft components such as seats, gallies, etc."[6]

To allow for varied camera angles, the set had many tracks for the camera dolly to move, and both the walls and the ceiling were built on hinges so they could easily be swung open for shooting. The design and colors tried to invoke the mood for each scene. For instance, a white room for "eerie, clinical, cold" moments, lower ceilings for claustrophobia, and wide open spaces to give no clues to the audience.[5] Most exterior scenes of the "E-474" involve a model with 1/10th of the aircraft's actual size, with the images being subsequently enhanced through computer-generated imagery. The explosion in the nose involved both life sized and scaled pieces of scenery. A one-half scale set of the avionics area was constructed to make the explosion and fireball look bigger.[4]

Music[edit]

The score for Flightplan was released September 20, 2005, on Hollywood Records. The music was composed and conducted by James Horner and the disc contains eight tracks. Horner stated that film's score tried to mix the sound effects with "the emotion and drive of the music", and the instruments were picked to match the "feelings of panic" Kyle goes on through the film. These included Gamelan instruments, prepared piano, and string arrangements. No brass instruments are used in the soundtrack.[4]

Reception[edit]

Box office[edit]

Flightplan opened at #1 in US and Canada, grossing over $24 million in its opening weekend. It grossed $89,707,299 at the domestic box office and $133,680,000 overseas for a worldwide total of $223,387,299.[3] It also grossed $79,270,000 on DVD rentals.

Critical response[edit]

On Rotten Tomatoes the film has an approval rating of 37% based on 179 reviews, with an average rating of 5.3/10. The site's critics consensus states: "The actors are all on key here, but as the movie progresses, tension deflates as the far-fetched plot kicks in."[7] On Metacritic, it has a weighted average score of 53 out of 100 rating, based on 33 critics, indicating "mixed or average reviews".[8] Audiences surveyed by CinemaScore gave the film an average grade B+ on an A+ to F scale.[9]

Film historian Leonard Maltin in Leonard Maltin's 2012 Movie Guide (2011) described Flightplan as "suspenseful at first, this thriller becomes remote and un-involving; by the climax, it's just plain ridiculous."[10]

Roger Ebert gave it 3 and a half out of 4 stars, praising its "airtight plot" and the acting performances.[11] Other reviewers including the Christian Science Monitor criticised "plotholes the size of an Airbus in the script".[12]

Aviation film historian Simon D. Beck in The Aircraft-Spotter's Film and Television Companion (2016) noted that Flightplan was careful in setting the scene. "The aircraft is a fictional mammoth airliner called the 'E-474', a double-deck jumbo modeled strongly after the Airbus A-380, the large size being suitable for the missing-person plot of the film."[6]

Controversy[edit]

The Association of Professional Flight Attendants called for an official boycott of Flightplan, which they say depicts flight attendants as rude, uncaring, indifferent, and even one as a "terrorist."[13]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^"Synposis: 'Flightplan' (12A)."British Board of Film Classification, September 26, 2005. Retrieved: November 14, 2015.
  2. ^"Flightplan (2005) - Financial Information".
  3. ^ ab"Box office: 'Flightplan' (2005)."Box Office Mojo. Retrieved: September 26. 2011.
  4. ^ abcde"In-Flight Movie: 'The Making of Flightplan'." Flightplan DVD, 2019.
  5. ^ ab"Cabin Pressure: Designing the Aalto E-474." Flightplan DVD, 2019.
  6. ^ abBeck 2016, p. 99.
  7. ^"Flightplan (2005)". Rotten Tomatoes. Fandango Media. Retrieved June 21, 2020.
  8. ^"Flightplan". Metacritic. Retrieved May 4, 2020.
  9. ^"FLIGHTPLAN (2005) B+". CinemaScore. Archived from the original on December 20, 2018.
  10. ^Maltin 2011. p. 472.
  11. ^Ebert, Roger (September 22, 2005). "Flightplan movie review & film summary (2005)". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved June 4, 2020.
  12. ^"Plot holes the size of an Airbus". Christian Science Monitor. September 23, 2005.
  13. ^"Flight attendants hope to ground 'Flightplan'."Today, September 29, 2005. Retrieved: January 30, 2015.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Beck, Simon D. The Aircraft-Spotter's Film and Television Companion. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland and Company, 2016. ISBN 978-1-4766-2293-4.
  • Maltin, Leonard. Leonard Maltin's 2012 Movie Guide. New York: Plume Books, 2011. ISBN 978-0-452-29735-7.

External links[edit]

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flightplan


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